Resources On The Double Procession And Filioque

Double Procession of the Holy Spirit, the doctrine of the W. Church acc. to which the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son. Support for it is found in several NT passages, notably Jn. 16:13–15, where Christ says of the Holy Spirit ‘He shall take (λήψεται) of Mine and shall shew it unto you’. It is urged that in the Inner-Trinitarian relations one Person cannot ‘take’ or ‘receive’ (λήψεται) anything from either of the others except by way of Procession. Among other texts adduced for the doctrine are Gal. 4:6, where the Holy Spirit is called ‘the Spirit of the Son’, Rom. 8:9 ‘the Spirit of Christ’, Phil. 1:19 ‘the Spirit of Jesus Christ’, and the Johannine texts on the sending of the Holy Spirit by Jesus (14:16, 15:26, 16:7).

Among the Greek Fathers St *Cyril of Alexandria is usually considered one of the most important witnesses to the doctrine. He develops it in his struggle against *Nestorianism, speaking of the Holy Spirit as belonging to the Son, τὸ ἴδιον τοῦ Υἱοῦ. He also uses several times the characteristic Latin formula ‘and the Son’ side by side with the Greek phrase ‘through the Son’, the former indicating the equality of principle, the latter the order of origin. The doctrine was expressly denied, on the other hand, by *Theodore of Mopsuestia and *Theodoret. Among the Latin Fathers, St *Jerome, St *Ambrose, and esp. St *Augustine are representatives of the teaching summed up in the ‘*Filioque’ (q.v.). But the doctrine did not become a matter of controversy until the time of *Photius (864), who asserted it to be contrary to the teaching of the Fathers and even suspected the relevant passages as interpolations. At the Council of *Florence (1439), Mark of Ephesus repeated this theory; but today most theologians of the E. Church recognize that St Augustine and other Latin Fathers taught the Double Procession, but only as a private opinion. The objection urged by E. theologians against the doctrine is that there must be a single Fount of Divinity (πηγὴ θεότητος) in the Godhead. The consideration urged by W. theologians in its support is that, as both Latins and Greeks attribute everything as common to the Father and the Son except the relation of Paternity and Filiation, the Spiration of the Holy Spirit, in which this relation is not involved, must also be common to both.

H. B. *Swete, On the History of the Doctrine of the Procession of the Holy Spirit from the Apostolic Age to the Death of Charlemagne (1876). Preface to P. E. *Pusey’s Eng. tr. of Cyril’s Commentary on the Gospel according to S. John (LF 43; 1874), pp. ix-lx. M. Jugie, AA, Theologia Dogmatica Christianorum Orientalium ab Ecclesia Catholica Dissentium, 1 (Paris, 1926), esp. pp. 286–311, and 2 (1933) pp. 296–535. Id., De Processione Spiritus Sancti ex Fontibus Revelationis et secundum Orientales Dissidentes (Lateranum, NS 2, nos. 3–4; 1936), with refs. Eng. tr. of V. *Lossky, ‘The Procession of the Holy Spirit in the Orthodox Triadology’, Eastern Churches Quarterly, 7 (1948), suppl. issue, 2, pp. 31–53. R. Haugh, Photius and the Carolingians: The Trinitarian Controversy (Belmont, Mass., 1975). H. J. Marx, SVD, Filioque und verbot eines anderen Glaubens auf dem Florentinum (Veröffentlichungen des Missionspriesterseminars St Augustin bei Bonn, 26; 1977). J.-M. Garrigues, L’Esprit qui dit ‘Père!’: L’Esprit-Saint dans la vie trinitaire et le problème du Filioque [1981]. See also bibl. s.v. filioque.

—Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2nd edition) s.v. “Double Procession”

5. The Filioque
Curiously intertwined with the series of incidents by which the creed worked its way into the Eucharist is the problem of the fateful interpolation in the third article which, ever since the eighth century, has been one of the most explosive topics of debate between the churches of East and West. For many hundreds of years the text of C accepted in the Latin church and its daughter communions has contained the clause proceeding from the father and the son (filioque) of the Holy Spirit. The Orthodox churches of the East have remained fiercely, even fanatically, attached to the more primitive proceeding from the father. A full discussion of the portentous addition in all its implications would necessitate an examination of at least three questions—the theology of the double procession, the history of the insertion of the filioque, and the history of the long-standing quarrel between East and West over it. Here we shall be mainly concerned with the second, although a few remarks about the first must be set down by way of preface. The third belongs by rights to the field of church history proper rather than the study of creeds.

So far as theology is concerned, the doctrine that the third Person derives His being equally and coordinately from the first and the second was characteristic, in its fully developed form, of Western Trinitarianism and, in particular, of St Augustine’s presentation of it. From the days of Tertullian the typical formula had been, “From the Father through the Son.” In the fourth century, however, the deeper implication was extracted from this that the Son, conjointly with the Father, was actually productive of the Holy Spirit. The text to which appeal was regularly made was the Lord’s statement in Jn. 16:14, “He (i.e. the Spirit) will receive of mine.” Here the pioneers were St Hilary (cf. his Patre et Filio auctoribus) and Marius Victorinus3 (not St Ambrose, whose texts refer to the Spirit’s external mission), but both these avoid speaking directly of His procession from the Son. St Augustine felt no need for reserve. His Trinitarianism did not start with the Father as the source of the other two Persons, but with the idea of the one, simple Godhead Which in Its essence is Trinity. The logical development of his thought involved the belief that the Holy Spirit proceeded as truly from the Son as from the Father, and he did not scruple to expound it with frankness and precision on numerous occasions. He admitted that, in a primordial sense (principaliter), the Spirit proceeded from the Father, because it was the Father Who endowed the Son with the capacity to produce the Holy Spirit. But it was a cardinal premiss of his theology that whatever could be predicated of one of the Persons could be predicated of the others. So it was inevitable that he should regard the denial of the double procession as violating the unity and simplicity of the Godhead.

This way of thinking became universally accepted in the West in the fifth and sixth centuries: there could be no more illuminating instance of the hold the great African had on Latin Christianity. Greek theology, however, was by no means prepared to take the bold step which seemed so easy and natural to St Augustine. Many passages can be cited from the Eastern fathers, and have been cited in the course of the long, embittered controversy, which appear to approximate to the doctrine of the double procession. One or two writers, like St Epiphanius, may even have succumbed to the influence of their Latin associates so far as to echo their language. Generally speaking, however, they never lost sight of the idea, which St Gregory of Nyssa brought out forcibly at the close of his Quod non sunt tres dii, that what accounted for the distinctions in the Trinity was the fact that one of the Persons stood in the relation of cause (τὸ αἴτιον) to the other two. Thus they found no difficulty in saying that the Spirit proceeded from the Father through the Son, the Son being considered the Father’s instrument or agent. But they treated it as axiomatic that the Father alone was the source or fountain-head of Deity, and that both the Son and the Spirit derived, in the only legitimate sense of the word, from Him, the one by generation and the other by procession. Their steadfast refusal to fall into line with the Latins was not the fruit of mere obstinacy, but sprang from an instinctive sense of the deep principle involved. What really divided East and West in their acrimonious and often unsavoury quarrel over the filioque was a fundamental difference of approach to the problem of the mystery of the triune Godhead.

Naturally the leaders of Western Christianity, while fully accepting and teaching the doctrine of the double procession, were far too cautious and diplomatic to flaunt it as an official dogma in the face of Eastern theologians. Gatherings held far from the centre, like the third council of Toledo (589) and the English synod of Hatfield (680), might proclaim the doctrine and anathematize its deniers, but the papacy deliberately resisted the temptation to commit itself. To take but one example, the procession of the Spirit from the Son as well as from the Father was expressly taught by St Gregory the Great (590–604), but the formula expressing it was carefully omitted from the profession of faith put out almost a century later (680) by Pope Agathon in the name of a synod held at Rome. So far as creeds are concerned, the double procession made its first appearance, it would seem, in Spain, in a series of local formulae directed against the Priscillianist heresy. One of the most ancient of these is the so-called creed of Damasus, in its original form ascribed to St Jerome, which A. E. Burn identified as the Pope’s reply to the treatise addressed to him by Priscillian of Avila in 380. K. Künstle hazarded the guess that its actual compilation was the work of the synod of Saragossa, which condemned the heretic in the same year, and which may have sent it to Damasus for his approval. Markedly anti-Priscillianist in tone, it contains the statement: “We believe … in the Holy Spirit, not begotten nor unbegotten, not created nor made, but proceeding from the Father and the Son.” Another example is the creed with twelve anathemas which has often been fathered on the first council of Toledo (400), but which Dom Morin suggested2 might be the long-lost Libellus in modum symboli of Pastor, bishop of Gallicia in 433. Here, too, belief is expressed in “the Spirit, the Paraclete, Who is neither the Father Himself nor the Son, but proceeds from the Father and the Son”. Many other similar texts might be quoted, and the student might be tempted to infer that there was something particularly deadly to Priscillianism in the filioque. The true explanation, however, is that Priscillianism was marked with a deep strain of Sabellianism, and the refutation of it demanded a detailed exposition of Trinitarian teaching. The presence of the filioque in Spanish creeds of this period merely testifies to the popularity of the doctrine in this section of the Western church.

A vivid illustration of the hold the double procession had on Spanish Christianity is provided by the record of events at Reccared’s council at Toledo in 589. At the opening session the king addressed the assembled bishops and notables, dwelling at length on his own conversion and his earnest desire to do what he could to set forth the true faith. Thereupon he proceeded to recite an exposition of it, in the course of which the following statement occurred:

In equal degree must the Holy Spirit be confessed by us, and we must preach that He proceeds from the Father and the Son and is of one substance with the Father and the Son: moreover, that the Person of the Holy Spirit is the third in the Trinity, but that He nevertheless shares fully in the divine essence with the Father and the Son.
Evidently the doctrine was regarded as clinching the case against Arianism. It implied that the Son, as the source equally of the Spirit, was in no sense inferior to the Father, and that all three Persons were completely coordinate and participated equally in the divine essence. The council followed Reccared’s lead enthusiastically, and drafted the third of its anathemas in the form: “Whoever does not believe in the Holy Spirit, or does not believe that He proceeds from the Father and the Son, and denies that He is coeternal and coequal with the Father and the Son, let him be anathema.” The suggestion of this language is that, while the doctrine was considered indispensable, it did not strike the council as revolutionary, but rather as an accepted article of orthodoxy.

It has often been held that the interpolation of the word filioque into the actual text of the creed must date from this occasion. King Reccared formally recited the Nicene creed, with its anathemas, and the Constantinopolitan Creed as embodying the faith of the first four general councils. It has seemed incredible that, after his own forceful language on the subject of the double procession and the enthusiasm with which the council took it up, the term symbolizing the doctrine should not have been incorporated in the creed. The evidence of the MSS, however, is not free from ambiguity on the point. Many years ago A. E. Burn drew attention to the fact that several important MSS containing the acts of the council either lack the crucial word or exhibit it inserted by a later hand. The matter still requires investigation, but the conclusion seems inescapable that, as originally recited at the council of Toledo, the text of C was the pure one without filioque. Nevertheless it was inevitable that, with the growing stress laid on the doctrine, the word should speedily creep into the creed. Spanish MSS of the subsequent centuries give abundant illustrations of the process at work.

The rest of the story is familiar enough. The use of the filioque spread from Spain to Gaul, where, even before it installed itself in the creed, it found a niche in some rites in the Preface of the mass. At first the West seems to have been genuinely unaware that the doctrine of the double procession represented a definite advance on, or certainly clarification of, the teaching of earlier centuries. Thus the synod of Hatfield, summoned to stabilize the Church against the presumed Eutychian tendencies of Monotheletism, expressed its loyal adherence to the decisions of the first five ecumenical councils and of the Lateran synod held in 649 under Pope Martin I. But the profession of faith which it published ran as follows:

We acknowledge and glorify our Lord Jesus Christ as they (i.e. the fathers of the general councils) glorified Him, neither adding nor subtracting anything, and we anathematize with heart and voice those whom they anathematized, and we acknowledge those whom they acknowledged, glorifying God the Father without beginning, and His only-begotten Son, begotten of the Father before all ages, and the Holy Spirit proceeding in an inexpressible manner from the Father and the Son, as those holy apostles and prophets and doctors taught whom we have mentioned.

Language like this reads all the more strangely when it is remembered that archbishop Theodore, who presided at the synod, had once been a monk at Tarsus and so presumably was familiar with the true text of the creed. Sooner or later, however, a clash between East and West was bound to come. The first round seems to have been fought at the council of Gentilly, at Easter 767. The immediate subjects under discussion were the worship of images and the return of territories in Italy, to which Constantinople felt it had a claim, but it is reported that “the question about the Trinity was ventilated between the Greeks and the Romans, and whether the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Son in the same way as He proceeds from the Father”. Apparently what happened was that the Western delegates accused the ambassadors of the emperor Constantine V (Copronymus) of neglect in the matter of the worship of images, and they retorted with a reproach about the impropriety of inserting filioque into the creed.

The dispute which had thus flared up almost accidentally was not long in developing into a steady blaze. Pippin, king of France, who had been present at the council of Gentilly, died in 768, and his son and successor, Charlemagne, took up the filioque with something like fervour, using every opportunity to parade it before the horrified East and trying his best to induce the papacy to lend him its moral and practical support. A good example was the remonstrance he addressed to Pope Hadrian I in 794. The Patriarch of Constantinople, Tarasius, had circulated a letter to the clergy of Antioch, Alexandria and Constantinople giving a creed expressing belief in the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father alone, and it appeared that Hadrian had given his assent to this confession at the seventh general council held at Nicaea in 787. Charlemagne rebuked the Pope for admitting such erroneous doctrines as those of Tarasius, “who professes that the Holy Spirit proceeds not from the Father and the Son, according to the faith of the Nicene symbol, but from the Father through the Son”. The Pope in his reply, written also in 794, defended the Patriarch, arguing that his theology was not his own, but was consonant with the teaching of many ancient fathers and with the practice of the Roman church.
In the same year the filioque received great publicity at the synod of Frankfurt-on-Main, which met to condemn the Adoptionist heresy and its chief supporters, Elipandus of Toledo and Felix of Urgel. Charlemagne was present in person, and the Pope was represented by legates. Among the documents read out was the Libellus of the Italian bishops against Elipandus, which was probably the work of St Paulinus of Aquileia. Here the doctrine of the double procession was vigorously asserted. Later in the proceedings a letter of Charlemagne’s to Elipandus and the other Spanish bishops was read out, and appended to this was a form of creed in which he, too, proclaimed belief in the double procession. Two years later, in 796 or 797, at the synod of Cividale which St Paulinus summoned, the symbol set forth was C with the filioque in the third article. In his inaugural address St Paulinus skilfully justified its insertion: it no more violated the principle that new creeds must not be framed than did the alterations which the fathers of 381 had felt obliged to make in N. It had become necessary to interpolate and from the son “on account of those heretics who whisper that the Holy Spirit is of the Father alone”. We need not doubt that the form in which the creed was sung in the royal chapel at Aachen, and in the Frankish dominions generally after 798, also contained the disputed clause.

Nevertheless the papacy had not been won over to accept it, and Charlemagne, who saw the filioque as a trump-card against the Eastern empire, could not rest until he had persuaded Rome to fall into line with his policy. He made a strong attempt to do so on the occasion of the troublesome incident which took place at Jerusalem in 808. There was a convent of Latin monks settled on Mount Olivet, and these were treated as heretics and threatened with expulsion by their Orthodox neighbours because they chanted the Constantinopolitan Creed at mass with the addition of and from the son. Naturally they resisted, protested their rights in the matter, and addressed a letter to Leo III complaining and inquiring what they should do. They requested him to inform Charlemagne, for it was in his chapel that they had heard the creed sung with the filioque. The Pope, it appears, first of all sent them a profession of faith aimed at the Eastern churches and affirming the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son. Then he informed the emperor of the affair. It was as a result of these happenings that Charlemagne, who assumed the role of protector of Christians in the Holy Land, commissioned Theodulphus of Orleans to write his treatise De Spiritu sancto3 and assembled a council at Aachen in 809–10. The delegates present approved and endorsed Theodulphus’s book, pronounced in favour of the filioque, and possibly even enjoined its addition to the creed. It was as a consequence of this gathering that Charlemagne sent that embassy to Leo III of which abbot Smaragdus preserved an account. As his report of the conversation still shows, the envoys used all their arts on the Pope without avail. With Roman conservatism, and a shrewd sense that if he yielded he would put himself in an awkward position vis-à-vis the East, he parried their ingenious arguments. The doctrinal truth conveyed by the filioque, he freely admitted, was essential to orthodoxy, but not all essential truths were enshrined in the creed. He admitted, too, that he had sanctioned the singing of the creed in the Frankish territories, but his permission had not been intended to cover an amended form of it. He went on to say that, if they wanted his candid opinion, all this trouble would have been avoided if they had adhered to the custom of the Roman church, where the creed was not sung at mass but only used for instructional purposes. His advice therefore was to drop the creed from the Eucharist altogether by gradual stages, making a start with the royal chapel.

Leo III thus emerged victorious from the encounter. He seems to have desired, however, to make a more public and permanent record of his determination to cleave steadfastly to the primitive version of the creed. The chronicler Anastasius tells the story of how he caused two silver shields inscribed with the creed, one in Greek and the other in Latin, to be fixed up in the basilica of St Peter’s. In the eleventh century St Peter Damian and others noticed the striking monument and reproduced part of the inscription. Their report makes it clear that the third article read proceeding from the father.

At the beginning of the ninth century, therefore, although the doctrine of the double procession was taught everywhere in the Western Church and the clause filioque was ensconced in the creed in Spain, France, Germany, and at any rate North Italy, Rome herself declined to tamper with the authorized text. No doubt sturdy traditionalism was one motive: reluctance to follow in the footsteps of provincial churches may have been another, although the period of Roman borrowing from the Gallican liturgy was beginning. There must also have been a very understandable determination on the part of the papacy not to put itself and the Western Church irretrievably in the wrong in the eyes of Constantinople. It was one thing for churches on the fringe to naturalize the controversial clause in their creeds: for the Holy See it involved far more to take the irrevocable step. It seems that the popes maintained this attitude for two full centuries more. Even during the Photian controversy, in the middle of the ninth century, when the patriarch of Constantinople was hurling violent accusations of heresy against the whole Western Church and, in particular, charging it with admitting the double procession, there is nothing to show that the creed at Rome had been altered. At what precise date and in what circumstances Rome received the filioque into the creed remains a mystery. The theory which has been widely accepted is that the decisive occasion was the day when, overborne by the persuasions of the emperor Henry II, Benedict VIII consented to have the Constantinopolitan Creed sung at the Holy Eucharist. The guess is plausible: it is hard to believe that the Pope could have been so tactless as to flourish in the emperor’s face a text of the symbol which lacked the phrase to which the church of Charlemagne and his successors attached so much importance.

— J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Creeds, pp. 358-68:

2. The demonstration of the filioque: “double procession.” The traditionally Western trinitarian concept of the double procession of the Holy Spirit was consistently upheld by the Reformers and argued with some vigor against the Greek Orthodox view. The Reformed exegetes, moreover, understood the issue to be one of exegesis, not merely an issue of the form of the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, and found the biblical text to be entirely of one accord in favor of double procession. Vermigli writes, with reference to John 15:26,
Seeing the Son saith, that he will send the Spirit, and (as we said before) affirmeth him to receive of his; no man doubteth, but that he proceedeth from the Son. And now he expressly addeth; Who proceedeth from the Father.
Calvin took the point with equal seriousness, noting in his commentary on the same text,

When he says that he will send him from the Father, and, again, that he proceedeth from the Father, he does so in order to increase the weight of his authority; for the testimony of the Spirit would not be sufficient against attacks so powerful, and against efforts so numerous and fierce, if we were not convinced that he proceedeth from God. So then it is Christ who sends the Spirit, but it is from the heavenly glory, that we may know that it is not a gift of men, but a sure pledge of Divine grace. Hence it appears how idle was the subtlety of the Greeks, when they argued, on the ground of these words, that the Spirit does not proceed from the Son; for here Christ, according to his custom, mentions the Father in order to raise our eyes to the contemplation of his Divinity.

As in Vermigli’s comment, Calvin’s analysis of the text assumes the sending of the Spirit by Christ and therefore the procession of the Spirit from the Son and views the further statement of the Gospel that the Spirit proceeds from the Father not restrictively but as an expansion of the meaning to include the Father.
Calvin rather emphatically takes the words “he proceeds from the Father” as an indication of the authority of the Spirit, not of the sole origin of his eternal procession: Christ here sends the Spirit, but manifests the Spirit as a “sure pledge of divine grace.” It is, he concludes, an “idle subtlety of the Greeks” to claim this text as warrant for their denial of double procession. Calvin points out in his comment on Romans 8:9,

But let readers observe here, that the Spirit is, without any distinction, called sometimes the Spirit of God the Father, and sometimes the Spirit of Christ; and thus called, not only because his whole fulness was poured on Christ as our Mediator and head, so that from him a portion might descend on each of us, but also because he is equally the Spirit of the Father and of the Son, who have one essence, and the same eternal divinity.

The orthodox follow the Reformers in upholding the Western doctrine of the filioque. The orthodox Reformed writers not only argue the Augustinian doctrine of double procession they insist on it as a biblical point held over against the teachings of the Greek Orthodox:

The property of the Son in respect of the Holy Ghost is to send him out, John 15:26. Hence arose the Schism between the Western and the Eastern Churches, they affirming the procession from the Father and the Son, these from the Father alone.

Among the Reformed orthodox theologians, Pictet notes the clear distinction of persons in John 15:26:
Here the Comforter, or Spirit, is plainly distinct from the Father and the Son. Again, they are so distinguished, that some things are said of the Father which cannot be said of the Son, and some things of the Son which are no where said of the Spirit. The Father is said to have begotten the Son … the Spirit is said to proceed from the Father, and to be sent by the Son; but nowhere is the Father said to proceed from nor the Son to be sent by the Spirit. Yet are these persons distinct in such a manner, that they are not three Gods but one God; for the scripture everywhere proves and reason confirms, the unity of the Godhead.

Similar statements are found among the Reformed exegetes of the era. Poole notes that the text has been read variously: some exegetes understand the Spirit’s procession from the Father merely as his coming forth or being poured out at Pentecost, whereas others—“the generality of the best interpreters”—understand the text as a reference to “the Holy Spirit’s eternal proceeding.” Owen, by way of contrast, argues the primary meaning of the text to be that the Spirit “goeth forth or proceedeth” in order to “put into execution” the salvific counsel of God in the application of grace and views the immanent procession of the Spirit as a secondary meaning, a conclusion to be drawn from the text.

As Pictet notes, the Reformed orthodox uniformly follow the Western doctrine:

That the Spirit proceeds from the Son, is proved by those passages in which he is represented as being sent no less by the Son than by the Father; nor is he any less the Spirit of the Son than of the Father: Rom. 8:9, “any one who does not have the Spirit of Christ …; Gal. 4:6, “God has sent the Spirit of his Son into our hearts”; John 16:7, “If I do not go away, Comforter will not come to you, but if I go, I will send him to you.”
Nor is this a minor point in theology that can be dismissed:

To deny the procession of the Holy Ghost from the Son, is a grievous error of Divinity, and would have grated the foundation, if the Greek Church had so denied the procession of the Holy Ghost from the Son, as that they had made an inequality between the Persons. But since their form of speech is, that the Holy Ghost proceedeth from the Father by the Son, and is the Spirit of the Son, without making any difference in the consubstantiality of the Persons it is a true though erroneous Church in this particular; divers learned men think that à Filio & per Filium in the sense of the Greek Church, was but a question in modo loquendi, in manner of speech, and not fundamental.

The problem of the filioque was, therefore, not something that the Reformed orthodox could ignore: they refused to go so far as to claim that the Greek church was a false church, but they still insisted that it ensconced an error in its doctrinal explanations of the creed.

From the Reformed perspective, moreover, the Greek critique of the filioque, that it implied two ultimate principia or archai in the Godhead, did not hold—for there could only be two archai if the Father and the Son separately and equally were the sources of the Spirit’s procession. The orthodox conception of the filioque, however, insisted on the unity of the act of the Father and the Son, so that the Holy Spirit proceeds from Father and Son by “one and the same breathing” and does so from both equally, the Father and the Son acting in communion with one another. Thus, the Holy Ghost, the third person, proceeds from the Father and the Son: “and albeit the Father and the Son are distinct persons, yet they are both but one beginning of the holy Ghost.” At the same time, following the Western pattern, the Reformed orthodox insisted on the begetting of the Son as placing the Son second in order, thus maintaining the Father as ultimate source of the personal distinctions and the Father and the Son together as the source of the Spirit.

Thus, when addressing the question of the procession of the Spirit, Owen indicates that the “fountain” or “source” of the Spirit’s procession is the Father, as indicated by John 15:26. There is, moreover, he adds, a “twofold ekporeusis or ‘procession’ of the Spirit: 1. physike or hypostatike, in respect substance and personality; 2. oikonomike or dispensatory, in respect of the work of grace.” The hypostatic procession, furthermore, must be understood in terms of the filioque: “he is the Spirit of the Father and the Son, proceeding from both eternally, so receiving his substance and personality.” Once stated, however, the point cannot, indeed, may not be elaborated, but rather accepted as “the bare acquiescence of faith in the mystery revealed.” It is only of the economic procession of the Spirit ad extra in the work of grace that Owen feels capable of speaking.

3. Procession and the scholastic tradition: Reformed reservations. The distinction between procession and begetting is also clear, albeit indefinable by finite creatures:

That procession may be distinguished from generation can be demonstrated from the fact that the Holy Spirit is always said to proceed from, and never to have been begotten by, the Father; nor is he ever called the image of God—but we must not curiously inquire into the nature of the difference. Let us guard against the unbridled and unsuccessful boldness of the schoolmen, who attempt to explain it: I certainly do not grasp the distinction between generation and procession, I am not desirous of this, nor am I able.

The usual unwillingness of the Protestant scholastics to enter into a lengthy discussion of the way in which the emanations of the second and third persons of the Trinity differ represents a rather significant example of the difference between medieval and Protestant scholasticism: the Protestants revert to the caveat of Gregory of Nazianzen against excessive inquiry into the mystery and emulate the Reformers in their somewhat reserved acceptance of the tradition without further explanation. The extensive and frequently cogent speculation of the medieval doctors concerning the relation of the emanations to the divine nature, intellect, and will (itself an extension of the Augustinian metaphors) is simply ignored by most of the Reformed orthodox. Keckermann’s early orthodox discussion of the procession of the Spirit as a volitional act of love in the Godhead, framed as part of a logical argument for the Trinity as three modes of existing in the one God, is quite unique in the era of orthodoxy.

A few writers note the problem and reflect on the medieval solutions, some with a high degree of distaste for the Augustinian metaphors and for speculative elaboration of the doctrine. Thus, Turretin, Heidegger, Pictet, and Rijssen indicate that the procession of the Spirit denotes a relation to the other persons of the Godhead different from the relation of the Son to the Father by generation. Both comment that what this difference is remains a mystery—we cannot explain it nor ought we to inquire into it as did the medieval scholastics. Turretin and Rijssen note, without any angry polemic, that the scholastics compared the operations of intellect and will to generation and procession, as if the Son, the Wisdom of God, were generated in an intellective manner (per modum intellectus) and the Spirit, identified with the divine love, proceeded in a volitional manner (per modum voluntatis). These arguments were posed, however, he continues, without the express corroboration of Scripture—and they serve to confuse even as they attempt to explain. Heidegger similarly rejects these distinctions as alogon, having no basis in Scripture or reason: after all, he notes, the correct doctrine of the divine attributes understands them as equally belonging to each of the persons, so that the intellectus Dei cannot pertain differently to the Father and the Son or the voluntas Dei differently by the Father and the Spirit. The relative gentleness of the criticism derives, perhaps, from Rijssen’s, Heidegger’s, and Turretin’s recognition that some of their Reformed predecessors had adopted the medieval solutions on this point.

Still, it is clear that the Spirit is different from the Son, related to the Son in origin, but a distinct person. It is also permissible to note three grounds of this distinction: first, in principio or foundation, for the Son emanates from the Father alone, the Spirit from both the Father and the Son. Thus, the Father alone is the principium of the Son, whereas the Father and the Son together are the principium of the Spirit. Second, in modo, since “the way of generation” terminates not only in the personalitas of the Son but also in a “similitude,” according to which the Son is called “the image of the Father” and according to which “the Son receives the property of communicating the same essence to another person.” In contrast, the Spirit “does not receive the property of communicating that essence to another person,” inasmuch as “the way of spiration” terminates “only in the personalitas” of the Spirit and not in a similitude of the Father. Third, there is a difference in ordine according to “our mode of perception,” insofar as the generation of the Son is somehow prior to the operation or procession of the Spirit, although, of course, the persons are coeternal—the spiration or procession of the Spirit presumes the generation of the Son, given the procession of the Spirit from the Son as well as from the Father.

Whereas most of the orthodox follow this line of argument and define the procession of the Spirit as a “spiration,” which is to say analogically, a “breathing forth,” some of the later writers, perhaps because of the confusion of “spirit” and “thought” in debates over Cartesianism, find the usage less than satisfactory, despite the patristic and medieval precedent: “Some think he is so called, because he proceeds from God in a way of breathing, but this is to explain what is obscure by what is still more obscure,” or, in the words of another later orthodox writer, if “spiration” is a “mere metaphorical expression,” it is unsuitable to the identification of distinct subsistence or personhood. “Since we are much in the dark about this mode of speaking, it would be better to lay it aside, as many modern writers have done.”

Ridgley notes that “some” have “pretended” to define the difference between the generation of the Son and the procession of the Spirit as identified by the power to communicate essence—a power communicated by the Father to the Son, but not communicated by the Father and the Son to the Spirit. The Spirit, therefore, does not have a power “to communicate the divine essence to any other as a fourth Person in the Godhead.” For Ridgley, this is an excessive speculation into an “unsearchable mystery.” All that can be said is that the various biblical texts that refer to the relationship of the Spirit to the Father and the Son “evince the truth” of the “communication of his divine essence or, at least, his personality, and that his being ‛sent by the Son,’ implies that this communication is from him as well as from the Father”—and, in Ridgley’s view, the question remains as to whether the biblical texts refer to an ad intra procession or merely to an ad extra sending.

Beza’s Summa Totius Christianismi

Theodore Beza
Geneva, 1555
trans. William Whittingham (1575) revised by R. Scott Clark (2002).

The question of God’s eternal Predestination is not curious, or unprofitable, but of great importance, and very necessary in the Church of God.

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THE FIRST CHAPTER.

1. In De bono perseverantiæ (On the Good of Perseverance), Augustine, chapter 14, says, that they who opposed him as adversaries in this question, alleged that the doctrine of predestination hindered the preaching of God’s word, and caused it to be unprofitable. As if (he says) this doctrine had hindered the Apostle Paul to do his duty: who so oftentimes does commend unto us, and teach Predestination, and yet never ceases to preach the word of God. Also says moreover: As he that has received the gift, can better exhort and preach: so he that has received this gift, does hear the Preacher more obediently, and with greater reverence, etc. We do therefore exhort and preach, but they only which have ears to hear do hear us quietly, and to their comfort: and in those that have them not, this sentence is fulfilled, that hearing with their ears they do not hear, for they hear with the outward sense, but not with the inward consent. Now why some men have these ears, and others not, it is, because it is given to some to come, and to others not. Who knew God’s counsel? must that be denied which is plain and evident, because that cannot be known which is hid and secret? Again in the 15th chapter, I pray you (says he) if some under the shadow of predestination give themselves to slothful negligence, and as they are bent to flatter their flesh, so follow their own lusts, must we therefore judge, that this which is written of the foreknowledge of God is false? Now surely this is very handsome, and to the purpose, that we shall not speak that which by the Scripture is lawful to speak. Oh we fear (say you) lest he should be offended, which is not able to understand, and take it. And shall we not fear (say I) lest whiles we hold our tongue, he that is able to take the truth, be taken and snared with falsehood and error? Also in the 20th chapter of the same book he writes in this sort, If the Apostles, and Doctors of the church which came after them, did the one and the other, both teaching the eternal election of God purely and truly, and also retaining the faithful in godly life and manners: What moves our adversaries (seeing they are overcome with the manifest and invincible truth) to think they speak well, saying, although this doctrine of predestination be true, yet it ought not to be preached to the people? Nay, so much the rather it is good to be thoroughly preached, that he that has

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ears to hear, may hear. And who has them, but he that has received them of God, who promises to give them? And as for him that does receive it, let him refuse it if he will: so that he that does receive it, may take it, drink it, be sufficed, and have life. For as we must preach the fear of God to the end that God may be truly served: so must we preach predestination that he which has ears to hear may hear, and rejoice in God, not in himself, for the grace of God towards him.

2. This is the mind of that excellent doctor as touching this point, which notwithstanding binds us to two conditions: the one is, that we speak no farther herein than God’s word limits us: the other, that we set forth the same thing which the Scripture teaches, accordingly, and to edification. Wherefore we will briefly speak of both these parts: first of the doctrine itself, and next of the use and applying of the same.

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THE SECOND CHAPTER

Of the eternal counsel of God hidden in himself, which afterwards is known by the effects thereof.

1. GOD, whose judgments no man can comprehend, whose ways can not be found out, and whose will (1) ought to stop all men’s mouths (2), according to the determinate and unchangeable purpose of his will, by the virtue whereof all things are made (3), yea even those things which are evil and execrable (not in that they be wrought by his divine counsel, but forasmuch as they proceed of the prince of the air, and that spirit which works in the children (4) of disobedience) has determined (5) from before all beginning with himself, to create all things in their time, for his glory, and (6) namely men: whom he has made after two sorts, clean contrary one to the other. Whereof he makes the one sort (which it pleased him to choose by his secret will and purpose) partakers of his glory through his mercy (7), and these we call according to the word of God, the vessels of honor, the elect, the children of promise, and predestinate to salvation (8): and the others, whom likewise it pleased him to ordain to damnation (that he might show forth his wrath and power, to be glorified also in them) we do call the vessels of dishonor and wrath, the reprobate and cast off from all good works (9).

2. This election or predestination to everlasting life, being considered in the will of God (that is to say) this same determination, or purpose to elect, is the first fountain and chief original of the salvation of God’s children: neither is it thereon grounded, as some say, because God did foresee their faith, or good works: but only of his own good will (10,) whence afterwards the election, the faith, and the good works spring forth. Therefore, when the scripture will confirm the children of God in full and perfect hope, it does not stay in alleging the testimonies of the second causes, that is to say, in the fruits of faith, nor in the second causes themselves, as faith, and calling by the Gospel, neither yet sometimes in Christ himself, in whom notwithstanding we are, as in our head elected and adopted, but ascends higher, even unto that eternal purpose which God has determined only in himself (11.) 3. Likewise, when mention is made of the damnation of the reprobate, although the whole fault thereof be in themselves (12): yet notwithstanding, sometimes when need requires, the Scripture to make more manifest by this Chapter 2

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comparison the great power of God’s patience, and the riches of his glory towards the vessels of mercy (13), leads us unto this high secret, which by order is the first cause of their damnation, of which secret, no other cause is known to men, but only his just will, which we must with all reverence obey, as coming from him, who is only just, and can not by any means, nor of any man, in any sort be comprehended
(14). For we must put difference between the purpose or ordinance of reprobation, and reprobation itself. Because God would that the secret of this his purpose should be kept close from us: and again we have the causes or reprobation, and damnation, which depends thereof, expressed in God’s word, that is to say, corruption, lack of faith, and iniquity, which as they be necessary, so are they also voluntary in the vessels made to dishonor (15): like as on the other part when we describe orderly the causes of the salvation of the elect, we put difference between the purpose of electing, which God has determined in himself, and the election which is appointed in Christ in such sort, that this his purpose or ordinance, does not only go before election in the degree of causes, but also before all other things that follow the same. (16.)

4. The place and testimonies of the Scriptures, which are alleged in this treatise, and marked by numbers, it seemed good to place apart at the end of every Chapter, partly that being separate they might be better weighed and understood: and partly because they could not for the multitude thereof be contained in the margin of the book. And here we have compassed every number within these two lines ( ) to the intent they might the more easily be found out.

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Notes of the Second Chapter

(1) Rom. 11.33.
(2) Job 9.10-12; Rom 9.20.
(3) Eph. 1.9,11; Gen. 27.20; Exod.
21.13; John 22.13; Prov. 16.33; 20.24; 21.1; Isa. 14.27; 46.4,10; Jer. 10.23;
Dan. 4.32; Matt. 10.29; Gal. 1.4.
(4) Eph. 2.2.
(5) Gen. 45.8; 50.19,20; Exod. 4.21; 7.3; and 9.12; and 10.1,20,27; and 11.10; 14.4,8,17; Deut. 2.30; Josh.11.19,20; 1 Sam. 2.25; 2 Sam. 12.11; 16.11; and 24.1; 1 Kings 12.15; 22.22,23; 2 Kings 18.25; 2 Chron. 10.15; 11.4; 22.7; 25.20; Neh. 9.36,37; Job 1.12,21; 23.14; 34.30; 37.13; Psalm 105.25; Isa. 10.15; 54.16; 63.17; John 12.40; Acts 2.23; 4.28; Rom. 9.18,19; 11.32 with Gal 3.22; 1 Thes. 3.3
(6) Prov. 16.4.
(7) Isa. 43.7; Eph. 1.5,6; Rom. 9.23;
(8) Rom. 8.29,30; 9.8,21; 1 Cor. 2.7; Eph.1.4; 2 Thes. 2.13; 1 Pet. 1.2.
(9) Exod. 9.16; Prov. 16.4; Rom. 3.5; 9.22; Isa. 54:16.
(10) Deut. 4.37; 7.7,8; Josh. 24.2; Psalm 44.3; Ezek. 16.6,60; John 15.16,19; Acts 13:48; 22.14; Rom. 5.6; 9.11-16,18,23; 11.7,35; 1 Cor. 4.7; Eph.
1.4,5,11; 2.10; Col. 1.12; 2 Tim. 1.9.
(11) Matt. 25.34; John 6.40,45; Acts 13.48; Rom. 8.29,30; 9.8,11,12,16,23; 11.7; Eph. 1.4,5,9,11; 2 Tim. 2.19; 1 Cor. 2.7,10.
(12) Hos. 13.9; John 3.19.
(13) Rom. 9.23. (14) Exod. 9.16; Psalm 33.15; Prov. 16.4; Rom. 9.11,12,13, where he says not only that Esau was ordained to be hated before he did any evil (for in so saying he should not seem to exclude any thing but actual sin and incredulity) but says expressly, before he was born, whereby he excludes the original sin, and all that which might be considered in the person of Esau by his birth, from the cause of the hate. Therefore anon after, when he shows how the Reprobate murmur, and reply, he does not say, that they speak in this sort: Why does not God hate others alike, seeing they are also born in the same corruption that we be? The Apostle speaks no such words, but he says their reason is in this sort: who can resist his will? For hereof man’s reason gathers, that they are unjustly condemned. And yet Paul does not answer, that God would so, because he saw that they would be corrupt, and so consequently that the cause of his decree should be grounded on their corruption (which answer had been clear and resolute, if it had been true) but forasmuch as he says plainly, it so pleased God, and it was not in their power to change this his good pleasure, he bridles man’s wisdom, that it might reverence and wonder at God’s mysteries, as it is most just to do. And also encourages the Elect to honor the grace of God, which is declared and made famous by such a corruption. In this sort then the other places of the Scripture which conduct and lift us up to behold the sovereign will of God, which is the only rule of justice ought to be expounded. Isa. 54.16; 1 Sam. 2.25; John 6.44,45,64,65; 10.26; 12.39,40; 1 Pet. 2.8; and in divers other places. (15) 2 Thes. 2.10-12; Rom. 11.20; 2 Cor. 4.3,4; Heb. 12.17. (16) Rom. 8.30; Eph. 1.4,5.

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THE THIRD CHAPTER: HOW GOD PUTS INTO EXECUTION HIS ETERNAL COUNSEL TOWARDS THE ELECT AS WELL AS TO THE REPROBATE.

1. THE Lord God, that he might put in execution this eternal  counsel, to his glory, prepared a way according to his infinite wisdom, indifferent both to those that he would choose, and those also which he would refuse. For when he determined to show his infinite mercy in the salvation of the elect, and also his just judgment in the condemnation of the reprobate: it was necessary that he should shut up both under disobedience and sin, to show his mercy to all (1) those that believe (2): that is to say, to the elect: because faith is a gift of God which properly belongs unto them (3): and to the contrary to have just cause to condemn them, to whom it is not given to believe (4), nor to know God’s mysteries (5). Therefore God did this in such sort, and with such wisdom, that the whole fault of the reprobates’ damnation lies in themselves: and on the other side, all the glory and praise of the elects’ salvation belongs wholly in his only mercy. For he did not create man a sinner, for then he should have been (with reverent fear be it spoken, the author of sin, which afterwards he could not justly have punished) but rather he made him after his own image (6): to wit, in innocence, purity, and holiness (7): who notwithstanding without constraint of any, neither yet forced by any necessity of concupiscence as touching his will (which as yet was not made servant to sin) (8), willingly and of his own accord rebelled against God: binding by this means the whole nature of man to sin, and so consequently to the death of body and soul (9). Yet we must confess that this fall came not by chance or fortune, seeing his providence stretches forth itself even to the smallest things (10), neither can we say, that any thing happens, that God knows not, or cares not for, except we would fall into the opinion of the Epicureans, from which God preserve us, neither yet by any bare or idle permission or sufferance, which is separate from his will and sure determination. For seeing he has appointed the end, it is necessary also that he should appoint the causes which lead us to the same end, unless we affirm with the wicked Manicheans that this end happens at all adventures, or by means of causes ordained by some other God. Furthermore we cannot think that any thing happens contrary to God’s will, except we deny blasphemously that he is omnipotent and almighty, As Augustine notes plainly in his book De correptione   et gratia (On Corruption and Grace). Cap. 104. We conclude therefore that this fall of Adam did so.

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proceed of the motion of his will that notwithstanding it happened not without the will of God: whom it pleases by a marvelous and incomprehensible mean, that the thing which he does not allow (for as much as it is sin) should not happen without his will. And this is done, as we said before, that he might show the riches of his glory towards the vessels of mercy: and his wrath and power upon those vessels, which he has made to set forth his glory by their shame and confusion (12). For the final end of God’s counsel is neither the salvation of the elect, nor the damnation of the reprobate: but the setting forth of his own glory, in saving the one by his mercy, and condemning the other by his just judgment. Then to avoid all these blasphemies, unto which the infirmity of our wits does draw us, let us confess that the corruption of the principal work that God has made (which is man) is not happened by chance, nor without the will of him, who according to his incomprehensible wisdom, does make and govern all things to his glory. Albeit we must confess (in despite of man’s judgment, which was limited in the beginning within a certain compass, and after was miserably corrupted) that the whole fault of his damnation lies in man: forasmuch as between the secret and incomprehensible will of God, and that corruption of man’s nature, which is the very first occasion of the reprobates damnation, the will of the first man is a mean, which being created good, has willingly corrupted itself, and thereby opened the door to the just judgment of God, to condemn all those, to whom it does not please him to show mercy. And if they would yet object and cavil, saying, that they cannot resist the will of God (13), let us suffer them to their own destruction to plead against him, who will be able enough to defend his justice against their quarreling. Let us rather reverence that which passes the reach and compass of our wits, and turn our minds wholly to praise his mercy, who by his only grace has saved us, when we deserved the like punishment and damnation, and were no less sinners and wicked than they.

Notes of the third chapter.

(1) Rom. 11.32.
(2) Gal. 3.22.
(3) Acts 13.48; Eph. 2.8; 2 Thes. 3.2; Titus 1.1,2; Phil. 1.29; Gal. 5.22.
(4) Matt. 13.11.
(5) John 12.38,39.
(6) Gen. 3.
(7) Eph. 4.24.
(8) Rom. 5.12; 7.20.
(9) Rom. 5.12 etc.
(10) Matt. 10.29,30; Prov. 16.33.
(11) Rom. 9.21,22; 1 Pet. 2.8; Exod. 9.16; Prov. 16.4.
(12) Exod. 9.16; Prov.
16.4; Isa. 54.16; Rom. 9.11,12,13,17,18, etc.
(13) Rom. 9.13,19.

THE FOURTH CHAPTER: BY WHAT ORDER GOD PROCEEDS TO DECLARE AND AFTER A
SORT TO EXECUTE HIS ELECTION.

1. WHEN God had determined with himself the things before mentioned, he, by a more manifest order of causes, which notwithstanding was eternal (as all things are present to him) disposed orderly all the degrees, whereby he would bring his elect unto his kingdom. Forasmuch therefore as he is merciful, and yet could not forget his justice, before all other things it was necessary that a mediator should be appointed: by whom man might be perfectly restored, and that this should be done by the free mercy and grace which does appear in the salvation of his elect. But man, besides that he is so weak, that it is not possible for him to sustain the weight of God’s wrath, does also so much flatter himself in that his most miserable blindness, that he cannot perceive it (1): because he is wholly in bondage to sin (2): so that the law of God is to him as death (3), so far is he unable of himself to recover his liberty, or to satisfy the law of God in the very least jot. God therefore the most merciful father of the Elect, moderating in such sort his justice, with his infinite mercy, appointed his only son, who was the very same substance, and God eternal with him, that at the time determined, he should by the power of the holy (4) Ghost be made very man (5), to the end that both the natures being joined in Jesus Christ alone (6), first, all the corruption of man should be fully healed in one man (7), who should also accomplish all justice (8), and moreover should be able enough to sustain the judgment of God, and be a Priest sufficient and worthy of himself to appease the wrath of God his father, in dying as a just and innocent for them that were unjust and sinners, covering our disobedience, and purging all our sins which were laid upon him (9). And finally with one only offering and sacrifice of himself should sanctify all the elect, mortifying and burying sin in them by the partaking of his death and burial: and quickening them into newness of life by his resurrection (10): so that they should find more in him than they had lost in Adam (11). And to the intent this remedy should not be found and ordained in vain, the Lord God determined to give this his Son with all things appertaining to salvation (12), to them whom he had determined in himself to choose: and on the other side, to give them unto his son, that they being in him, and he in Chapter 4 13 them (13), might be consummate and made perfect in one, by these degrees that follow after, according as it pleased him to bring forth every one of his elect into this world. For first, when it pleases him to disclose that secret which he had purposed from before all beginning (14), at such time as men least look for it (15), as men are blinded and yet think they see most clear (16), when as in very deed death and damnation hangs over their head (17), he comes suddenly, and sets before their eyes, the great danger wherein they are, and that they might be touched more sharply and lively, he adds to the witness of their own conscience, being as it were asleep and dead, the preaching of his law (18), and the examples of his judgments, to strike them with the horror of their sins: nor that they should remain in that fear, but rather that beholding the great danger thereof, should fly to that only mediator Jesus Christ (19): in whom after the sharp preaching of the law, he sets forth the sweet grace of the Gospel, but yet with this condition, that they believe in him (20), who only can deliver them from condemnation (21) and give them right and title to the heavenly inheritance (22). Yet all these things were but vain if he should only set before men’s eyes these secrets by the external preaching of his word written and published in the church of God, which notwithstanding is the ordinary means whereby Jesus Christ is communicated to us (23): therefore as regarding his elect (24), unto the external preaching of his Word, he joins the inward working of his Holy Spirit, which does not restore (as the Papists imagine) the remnants or residue of free will (for what power soever of free will remains in us, serves to no other use but willingly to sin (25), to fly from God (26), to hate him (27), and so not to hear him (28), nor to believe in him (29), neither yet to acknowledge his gift (30), no not so much as to think a good thought (31): and finally to be children of wrath and malediction,) but to the contrary changes their hard hearts of stone into soft hearts of flesh (32), draws them (33), teaches them (34), lighten their eyes (35), and opens their sense (36), their heart, their ears, and understanding: first to make them to know (as we have said before) their own misery: and next, to plant in them the gift of faith, whereby they may perform that condition, which is joined to the preaching of the Gospel. And that stands in two points, the one, whereby we know Christ, in general, believing the story of Christ, and the Prophecies which are writ of him (37), which part of faith, as we shall declare in due place, is sometimes given to the reprobate. The other, which is proper, and only belongs to the elect, consists in applying

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Christ (who is universally and indifferently preached to all men) to ourselves, as ours: and that every man make himself sure of his election, which has been hid before all time in God’s secret (38), and afterwards revealed unto us, partly by inward testimony of our conscience through the holy ghost, joined to the external preaching of God’s word (39): and partly also by the virtue and power of the same spirit, who delivering the Elect from the servitude of sin (40), persuades and conducts them to will and work the things which please God. These then be the degrees, whereby it pleases God to create and form by his especial grace, that precious and peculiar gift of faith in his elect, to the intent that they may embrace their salvation in Jesus Christ. But because this faith in us is yet weak and only begun, to the end that we may not only persevere in it, but also profit (which thing is most necessary for all men to do) first according to the time that our adoption is revealed unto us, this faith is sealed in our hearts by the Sacrament of Baptism: and after every day more and more is confirmed and sealed in us by the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper: of which two Sacraments, the principal end is, that they be sure and effectual signs and pledges of the communion of the faithful with Christ (41) who is their wisdom, justice, sanctification, and redemption (42). For this occasion it is so oftentimes mentioned with Paul, that we being justified by faith, have peace with God (43): For whosoever has obtained the gift of true faith, has also by the same grace and liberality of God obtained the gift of perseverance (44). So that in all manner of temptations and afflictions, he doubts not to call upon God, with sure confidence to obtain his request (as far as it is expedient for him) knowing that he is of the number of God’s children, who can not fail him (45). Moreover he never swerves so from the right way, but at length by the benefit of God’s grace, he returns again: for although faith sometime seem in the Elect (as it were for a time) hid and buried, so that a man would think it were utterly quenched (46) (which God allows, that men might know their own weakness) yet it does never so far leave them, that the love of God and their neighbor, is altogether plucked out of their hearts. For no man is justified in Christ, who also is not sanctified in him (47), and framed to good works, which God prepared that we should walk therein (48). This is then the way whereby God by his mercy does prepare (to the full execution of his eternal counsel) them amongst his Elect, whom it pleases him to reserve, till they come to ripe age and discretion. As touching the other whom he calls into his kingdom so soon as they are born, or in their

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tender years, he uses a more short way. For seeing he does comprehend in that his free covenant, whereof Jesus Christ is the mediator (49), not only the faithful, but also their posterity (50), into a thousand generations (51), calling the same by express words, holy (52): there is no doubt but the children of the Saints, which appertain to election, (whom he only knows) he has given to his son, who will not cast them out (53).

Notes of the fourth chapter.

(1) John 9.41.
(2) Rom. 1.18; 7.14; 8.7; 1 Cor. 2.14; 2 Cor. 3.5; Eph. 2.3.
(3) Rom.
7.10
(4) Matt. 1.20; Luke 1.35.
(5) John 1.14; 1 John 1.1-3.
(6) Rom. 1.3,4; 2Cor. 5.19; Col. 2.9.
(7) Rom. 8.3.
(8) Matt. 3.15; 5.17,18; 1 Cor. 1.30.
(9) Isa. 53.4,5,7,11; Rom. 3.25; Acts 20.28; Col. 1.20; Rom. 5.19; 1 Pet. 2.24; 3.18; 2 Cor. 5.21.
(10) Rom. 6.3,4,5. etc. Col. 3.1; 2.12; John 17.19; Heb. 9.13; 10.14.
(11) Rom. 5.15,16,17,20.
(12) Rom. 8.32; John 3.16. (13) John 17.2,6,9,11,12,23.
(14) Gen. 3.15; 22.18; Rom. 3.25. and 16.25; 1 Cor. 2.7; Gal. 4.4; Eph. 1.9,10; Col. 1.26; 2 Tim. 1.9; Titus 1.2; 1 Pet. 1.20.
(15) Josh. 24.2; Ezek. 16.8,9; Isa. 65.1; Eph. 2.3,4,5,12; Rom. 5.10; 1 Pet. 2.10.
(16) John 9.41; John 3.19.
(17) Rom. 1.18,19; 2.15; Acts 14.17.
(18) Rom. 1.18,19; 2.15; Acts 14.17.
(19) Rom. 7.7; 1 Tim. 2.5; 2 Tim. 2.25,26; Acts 2.37,38; 1 John 2.1.
(20) John 1.12; 3.16; Rom. 1.16, and almost in every page of the whole Scripture.
(21) Rom. 8.1; 1 John 2.1.
(22) John 1.12, and 3.16; Rom. 1.16, and 5.1.
(23) Rom. 10.8,17; 2 Cor. 5.18,19; Jam. 1.18; 1 Pet. 1.25.
(24) Eph. 1.5,9; Col. 1.27.
(25) Rom. 6.19,20.
(26) Gen. 3.8; John 6.44,65.
(27) Rom. 5.10; 8.7.
(28) John 8.47.
(29) Isa. 53.1; John 12.39.
(30) Matt. 13.11; John 4.10; 3.3; 1 Cor. 2.14.
(31) 2 Cor. 3.5.
(32) Ezek. 11.19; 36.26; Psalm 51.12.
(33) John 6.44.
(34) John 6.45; 16.13; Psalm 119.33.
(35) Psalm 119.130; Eph. 1.17.
(36) Isa. 50.5; Psalm 10.17; 119.18,73,130; Col. 1.9. Jer. 31.18,19; 2 Tim. 2.25.
(37) Luke 24.45, Acts 16.14.
(38) 1 Cor. 2.10,11,12,16; Col. 1.26,27; Eph. 1.17-19; 1 John 3.24; 5.20.
(39) Rom. 8.15; Gal. 4.6.
(40) Rom. 8.14; 1 John 3.10,14; 4.14; Phil. 2.13; John 8.36; Rom. 6.18.
(41) Mark 16.16; Acts 2.38; Rom. 6.3,4; Gal. 3.27; Col. 2.12; Eph. 5.26; 1 Pet. 3.21; 1 Cor. 10.16; Rom. 4.11.
(42) 1 Cor. 1.30.
(43) Rom. 3.20-22; 4.2,5; 5.1; and in divers other places.
(44) and (45) Num. 23.19; Psalm 23.6; 27.1-3; Psalm 91 at large; Matt. 24.24; John 6.37; 17.15; 10.28,29; Rom. 5.2-5; 8.15,16,38,39; 1 Cor. 2.12,16; 2 Cor. 13.5; Eph. 1.9; Phil. 1.6; 1 Thes. 5.24; 2 Cor. 1.21; James 1.6; Heb. 4.16; 10.22; 1 John 4.17.
(46) So Moses, Aaron, David, Peter fell. 1 John 1.8.
(47) Rom. 6.1,2; and 1 John 3.9,10; 4.20; 2 Pet. 1.9.
(48) Eph. 2.10; 1.4.
(49) 1 Tim. 2.5; Heb. 9.15.
(50) Gen. 17.7.
(51) Exod. 20.6.
(52) 1 Cor. 7.14.
(53) John 6.37.

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THE FIFTH CHAPTER: AFTER WHAT SORT ALMIGHTY GOD DOES EXECUTE AND EFFECTUALLY DECLARE HIS COUNSEL TOUCHING REPROBATION.

1. BY these things whereof we have now spoken, it may easily appear how God makes them to go to their own place: (1) whom he created to that end that he might be glorified in their just condemnation. For as Christ the second heavenly Adam, is the foundation and very substance and effect of the Elect’s salvation: so also the first earthly Adam, because he fell, is the first author of the hate, and so consequently of the damnation of the reproved (2). For when God, moved with those causes which he only knows, had determined to create them to this end, to show forth in them his just wrath and power (3), likewise he did orderly dispose the causes and means, whereby it might come to pass that the whole cause of their damnation might be of themselves, as has been declared before in the third chapter. When man then was fallen willingly into that miserable estate whereof we have spoken in the chapter before, God who hates justly the Reprobate, because they are corrupt, in part of them he does execute his just wrath so soon as they are born (4): and towards the rest that be of age, whom he reserves to a more sharp judgment, he observes two ways clean contrary one to the other. For as concerning some, he shows them not so much favor, as once to hear of Jesus Christ, in whom only is salvation (5), but suffers them to walk in their own ways (6), and run headlong to their perdition. And as for the testimonies that God has left to them of his divinity (7), serve them to no other use but to make them without all excuse (8), and yet through their own default, seeing their ignorance and lack of capacity, is the just punishment of that corruption wherein they are born. And surely as touching that that they can attain unto in knowing God, by their light, or rather natural darkness (albeit they never failed in the way, but so continued) (9), yet were it not in no wise sufficient for their salvation. For it is

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necessary for us that shall be saved, that we know God, not only as God, but as our father in Christ (10): which mystery flesh and blood does not reveal (11), but the son himself, to them whom his father has given him (12). As concerning others, their fall is more terrible (13). For he causes them to hear by preaching the outward word of the Gospel (14), but because they are not of the number of the Elect, being called, they hear not (15), and forasmuch as they are not able to receive the spirit of truth (16), therefore they cannot believe, because it is not given unto them (17), wherefore when they are called to the feast, they refuse to come, so that the word of life is folly unto them, and an offence (18), and finally the savor of death to their destruction. (19.) There are yet others, whose hearts God opens to receive and believe the things that they hear, but this is with that general faith, whereby the Devils believe and tremble (20). To conclude, they which are most miserable of all, those climb a degree higher, that their fall might be more grievous, for they are raised so high by some gift of grace, that they are a little moved with some taste of the heavenly gift (21): so that for the time they seem to have received the seed, and to be planted in the Church of God (22), and also show the way of salvation to others (23). But this is plain that the spirit of adoption, which we have said to be only proper unto them which are never cast forth (24) but are written in the secret of God’s people (25), is never communicate unto them. For if they were of the Elect, they should remain still with the Elect (26). All these therefore (because of necessity, and yet willingly, as they which are under the slavery of sin (27)), return to their vomit (28) and fall away from faith (29) are plucked up by the roots, to be cast into the fire (30). I mean, they are forsaken of God (31), who according to his will (which no man can resist (32), and yet for all that because of their corruption and wickedness) (33), hardens them (34), makes their hearts fat, stops their ears, and blinds them (35): and to bring this to pass, he uses partly their own vile lusts, to which he has given them up to be ruled and led by (36), and partly the spirit of lies, who keeps them wrapped in his snares (37), by reason of their corruption, from which

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as out of a fountain, issues a continual flowing river of infidelity, ignorance, and iniquity: whereby it follows that [they] having as it were made shipwreck of their faith, can by no means escape the day, which is appointed for their destruction, that God may be glorified in their just condemnation (38).

Notes of the fifth chapter.

(1) Acts 1.25; Rom. 9.22; Matt. 25.41.
(2) Rom. 5.18; 1 Cor. 15.21, etc.
(3) Exod. 9.16; Rom. 9.17,22.
(4) Exod. 20.5; Eph. 2.3; Rom. 5.14.
(5) Matt. 1.21; Acts 4.12.
(6) Acts 14.16,17; 17.30; Rom. 1.24; Eph. 2.11.
(7) Rom. 1.19,20; Acts 14.17; 17.27.
(8) Rom. 1.20; John 15.22; Rom. 2.12.
(9) Rom. 1.21,22.
(10) John 17.3; 3.36.
(11) Matt. 11.27; 16.17. John 1.13; 3.5,6.
(12) Matt. 11.27.
(13) Luke 12.47.
(14) Matt. 22.14; Luke 13.34; 19.42.
(15) Jer. 7.27,28; Prov. 1.24.
(16) John 14.17.
(17) John 12.39,40; 2 Thes. 3.2; Matt. 13.11.
(18) 1 Cor. 1.18,23.
(19) 2 Cor. 2.15,16.
(20) James 2.19.
(21) Heb. 6.4.
(22) Acts 8.12; Matt. 13, and in many other places which we have above recited in the 2nd chapter.
(23) Acts 1.17.
(24) John 6.37.
(25) Ezek. 13.9; Rev. 22.18.
(26) 1 John 2.19.
(27) John 8.34; Rom. 5.12; 6.19,20; and 7.14; and 8.7.
(28) 2 Pet. 2.22.
(29) 1 Tim. 4.1.
(30) Matt. 15.13; John 15.2.
(31) Acts 14.16.
(32) Rom. 9.19.
(33) Rom. 1.27,28; 2 Thes. 2.9-11; John 3.19.
(34) Isa. 63.17; Exod. 4.21; Deut. 2.30, and in many other places above recited in the 2nd chapter.
(35) Isa. 6.10; Rom. 11.32.
(36) Exod. 8.32; Psalm 95.8; Acts 7.42; Rom. 1.26.
(37) 2 Kings 22.23; 2 Cor. 4.4; 2 Tim. 2.26;
(38) 1 Tim. 1.19; Prov. 16.4; Exod. 9.16; Rom. 9.21,22, etc.

Chapter 6

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THE SIXTH CHAPTER: OF THE LAST AND FULL EXECUTION AND ACCOMPLISHMENT OF GOD’S ETERNAL COUNSEL AS WELL TOWARDS THE ELECT AS THE REPROBATE.

1. FOR as much as God is justice itself, it is necessary that he should save the just, and condemn the unjust. Now they amongst men are only just, who being by faith joined to Christ (1), grafted (2), rooted in him (3), and made one body with him (4), are justified and sanctified in him, and by him: whereof it follows, that the glory to which they are predestined (5), to the glory of God (6), pertains to them as by a certain right or title. On the other part, they which remain in Adam’s pollution and death, are justly hated of God: and so condemned by him, not excepting so much as them which die before they sin, as Adam did (7). But both these manners of executing God’s judgments, as well in these as in the other which are elected are in three sorts: whereof we have already declared the first. For the elect in that same moment that they have received the gift of faith, have after a certain sort passed from death to life (8), whereof they have a sure pledge (9). But this their life is hid in Christ, till this corporal death make them to step a degree further, and that the soul being released out of the bands of the body, enter into the joy of the Lord (10). Finally, in the day appointed to judge the quick and the dead (11), when that which is corruptible and mortal shall be clad with incorruptibleness and immortality, and God shall be all in all things, then they shall see his majesty face to face, and shall fully enjoy that unspeakable comfort and joy, which before all beginning was prepared for them, which is also the reward that is due to the righteousness and holiness of Christ: who was given for their sins, and raised again from death for their justification: by whose virtue and spirit they have proceeded and gone forward from faith to faith, as shall manifestly appear by the whole course of their life, and good works (12). Whereas altogether contrary, the reprobate conceived, born, and brought up in sin, death, and wrath of God (13), when they depart out of this world, they fall into another gulf of destruction, and their

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souls are plunged in that endless pain (14), until the day come that their bodies and souls being joined again, they shall enter into everlasting fire, which is prepared for the devil and his angels (15). Then by these two ways (which are clean contrary one to another) the last issue and end of God’s judgments shall set forth manifestly his glory to all men, forasmuch as in his elect he shall declare himself most just and most merciful. Most just, I say, for that he has punished with extreme rigor and severity the sins of his elect in the person of his son, neither did receive them into the fellowship of his glory, before he had fully and perfectly justified and sanctified them in his Son. And most merciful, for as much as he freely appointed with himself to elect them, and according as he had purposed, chose them freely in his son, by calling, justifying, and glorifying them, by means of that same faith which he had given them through the same grace and mercy. On the other side, touching the reprobate, their corruption and infidelity, with such fruits as come thereof, and testimony of their own conscience, shall so reprove and accuse them, that although they resist and kick against the prick: yet the most perfect justice of God shall be manifest and shine by all men’s confession in their just condemnation.

Notes of the sixth chapter.

(1) John 17.21.
(2) Rom. 6.5.
(3) Col. 2.7.
(4) 1 Cor. 10.16.
(5) Rom. 8.30; 1 Cor. 1.30; 2 Cor. 5.5; Rom. 9.23.
(6) Rom. 3.25,26.
(7) Rom. 5.14; Eph. 2.3; John 3.36.
(8) and (9) John 5.24; 2 Cor. 1.21,22; 5.5; 1 Cor. 1.6-8; Rom. 8.25; Eph. 1.13,14; in the same 2.6; Rom. 5.2.
(10) Luke 23.43; Matt. 22.31,32; Luke 16.22; Phil. 1.23.
(11) and (12) 2 Tim. 4.1; Acts 3.21; Rom. 8.21; 1 Cor. 15; 1 Cor. 13; Matt. 25.34; Rom. 4.25; 1.17.
(13) Rom. 5.12; 7.14; Eph. 2.3.
(14) Luke 16.2,23,24.
(15) Matt. 25.41.

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THE SEVENTH CHAPTER. AFTER WHAT SORT THIS DOCTRINE MAY BE PREACHED WITH MOST PROFIT.

1. SINCE we have now declared the effect of this doctrine: it remains also that we show what order we think best to be observed in preaching and applying the same to every particular man. Whereas many find this matter so sharp and strange, that they flee from it as from a dangerous rock: it is partly to be attributed to the malice and arrogance of men: and partly to the rashness and lack of discretion of them that teach it. And thirdly it is to be imputed to their ignorance which can not orderly apply the same to themselves, which faithfully and truly has been taught of others. Concerning them which sin of malice, it only pertains to God to amend them: which surely he has done always in his season, and likewise will do from time to time, to whom he has appointed to show mercy. But for others which remain obstinate in their sin and wickedness, there is no cause why we should be moved either for their number or authority, or dissemble God’s truth. And as touching the second sort, I have thought these things principally to be observed in preaching this mystery.

2. First as in all other things (1), so chiefly in this matter of predestination, they ought to take diligent heed, that instead of God’s pure and simple truth, they bring not forth vain and curious speculations or dreams (2): which thing they can not choose but do, which go about to compass and accord these secret judgments of God with man’s wisdom, and so do not only put difference between predestination and the purpose of God, which thing they must needs do, but separate the one from the other: for they either imagine a certain naked and idle permission, or else make a double purpose and counsel in God. From which errors they must needs fall into many and great absurdities. For sometimes they are constrained to divide those things which of themselves are joined most straitly: and sometimes they are compelled to invent a great sort of foolish and dark distinctions, wherein the further they

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occupy themselves and search, the wider they stray from the purpose, and so entangle their miserable brains, that they can find no way out. This then ought to be avoided with all careful diligence, chiefly in this matter which above all other ought purely and sincerely to be taught in the Church of God.

3. Moreover as much as is possible let them take heed (though sometimes for a more clear understanding of things a man may be bold godly and reverently to do) that no strange manner of speech, or not approvable by God’s word, be used: and also that such phrases and words which the Scriptures approve, be expounded fitly, lest otherwise any man should take occasion of offence, which as yet is rude and ignorant. Furthermore we must have good respect unto the hearers (3), wherein also we must make distinction between the malicious and the rude: and again between them which are willful ignorant, and those which are not capable through a simple and common ignorance. For to that further sort our Lord is accustomed to set forth plainly the judgment of God (4): but the other must be led by little and little to the knowledge of the truth (5). Likewise we must take heed that we have not so much respect to the weak, that they in the mean season which are apt to understand, be neglected, and not sufficiently taught: whereof we have notable examples in Paul, which declare to us the wisdom and circumspection which he observed in this matter, chiefly in the 9, 10, 11, 14, and 15th chapters of the Epistle to the Romans. Also, except some great cause hinder, that they begin at the lowest and most manifest causes, and so ascend up to the highest (as Paul in his Epistle to the Romans which is the right order and way to proceed in matters of divinity, from the law goes to remission of sins, and thence by steps he mounts till he come to the highest degree) or else let them consist in that point which is most agreeable to the text or matter which they have in hand, rather than to the contrary to begin at the very top of this mystery, and so come down to the foot. For the brightness of God’s majesty, suddenly presented to the eyes, does so dim and dazzle the sight, that afterwards, if they be not through long continuance accustomed to the same, they wear blind, when they should see other things.

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4. What then remains? That, whether they begin beneath and ascend upwards, or to the contrary, above, and come downward to the lowest degree, they take always heed, lest omitting that which ought to be in the midst, they leap from one extremity to another, as from the eternal purpose, to salvation, and much more from salvation to the eternal purpose: Likewise from God’s eternal counsel to damnation, or backward from damnation to his purpose: leaving the near and evident causes of God’s judgment. Except perchance they have to do with open blasphemers and condemners of God, who have need of nothing else, but the sharp pricks of God’s judgments: or else with men so trained and exercised in God’s word, that there be no suspicion of any offence. Finally, that they never so propound this doctrine, as if it should be applied to any one man particularly (6), although men must be used after divers sorts, some by gentleness, and some by sharpness, unless some Prophet (7) of God be admonished by some special revelation, which thing because it is out of course, and not usual, ought not lightly to be believed. When the ministers also visit the sick, or use familiar and private admonitions, it is their duty to lift up and comfort the afflicted conscience, with the testimony of their election, and again to wound and pierce the wicked and stubborn, with the fearful judgment of God: so that they keep a mean, refraining ever from that last sentence, which admits no exception nor condition. For this right and jurisdiction only pertains to God (8).

Notes of the seventh chapter.

(1) Matt. 28.20.
(2) 2 Tim. 2.23.
(3) 2 Tim. 2.15.
(4) Matt. 23, the whole chapter; John 8.44; 9.41; 10.26; Luke 20.46; Matt. 23.38.
(5) 1 Cor. 3.2; Rom. 14.1.
(6) John 8.33,34; Phil. 3.2; 1 Tim. 6.3,4.
(7) 2 Tim. 4.14; John 6.64,70.
(8) Matt. 12.38,39, with John 8.24.

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THE EIGHTH CHAPTER. HOW EVERY MAN MAY WITH PROFIT APPLY THIS  UNIVERSAL DOCTRINE TO HIMSELF.

1. IT is most evident, that they who teach that man’s salvation either in part or wholly depends and is grounded in works, destroy the foundation of the Gospel of God (1). And to the contrary, they that teach justification freely by faith, ground on a sure foundation, but so, that they build upon that eternal counsel of God, whereupon Christ himself (2), and the Apostle Paul following Christ’s steps, grounds his doctrine (3). For seeing perseverance in faith is requisite to salvation (4), to what purpose shall faith serve me except I be sure of the gift of perseverance? Nor we need not fear, lest this doctrine make us negligent, or dissolute: for this peace of conscience whereof we speak (5), ought to be distinct and separate from foolish security, and he that is the son of God, seeing he is moved and governed by the spirit of God, (6), will never through the consideration of God’s benefit take occasion of negligence, and dissolution. Then if by this doctrine we had but this one commodity, that we might learn to assure and confirm our faith against all brunts that might happen, it is manifest that they which speak against, and resist this article of religion, either through their wickedness, or else through ignorance, or some foolish blind zeal, which happens when men will measure God according to the capacity of their own wits, subvert and destroy the principal ground and foundation of our salvation. And in very deed though some (as I must confess) do it not purposely: yet do they open notwithstanding the door to all superstition and impiety. As for them, which nowadays maliciously oppose the truth, I beseech the Lord, even from the heart, either to turn their minds (if so be they pertain to the elect) or else to send them a most speedy destruction, that by their own example they may confirm and establish that doctrine, which so maliciously they resist. These other I will desire most instantly, and require them in the name of God, that they would better advise themselves what they do.

2. Now to touch briefly how this doctrine may be applied, let us mark that all the works of God, even the least of all, are such that man cannot judge of them, but in two sorts: that is, either when they are done, or else by foreseeing them to come to pass by the disposition of the second and manifest

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causes, whose effects have been diligently, and by long use observed, as men accustom in natural things to do: wherein, notwithstanding men are wonderfully blind. In this matter then, which is most obscure of all others, it is no marvel if man’s wit be driven into this strait, that it cannot otherwise understand but by this means, what is determined as touching himself in this secret counsel of God. But because these are most high mysteries [1 Cor. 2.7], and therefore stand in the observation of those causes which pass all natural things, we must needs seek further, and come to God’s word: which forasmuch as without all comparison, it is more certain than man’s conjectures: so it can best direct us herein, and assure us. 3. The Scripture then witnesses (7) that all those that God has, according to his counsel, predestinate, to be adopted his children through Jesus Christ, are also called in their time appointed, yea and so effectually, that they hear the voice of him that calls, and believe it (8): so that being justified and sanctified in Jesus Christ, they are also glorified. Will you then, whosoever you are, be assured of your predestination, and so, in order, of your salvation, which you look for, against all the assaults of Satan? Assured I say, not by doubtful conjectures, or our own fantasy, but by arguments and conclusions, no less true and certain (9), than if you were ascended into heaven, and had heard of God’s own mouth his eternal decree and purpose? Beware that you begin not at that most high degree: for so you should not be able to sustain the most shining light of God’s majesty. Begin therefore beneath at the lowest order, and when you shall hear the voice of God (10) sound in your ears, and in your heart, which calls you to Christ the only mediator, consider by little and little, and try diligently (11), if you are justified and sanctified in Christ through faith: for these two be the effects or fruits, whereby faith is known, which is their cause. As for this you shall partly know by the Spirit of adoption, who cries within you, Abba, father (12): and partly by the virtue and effect of the same Spirit, which is wrought in you. As if you fall, and so declare indeed that although sin dwells in you, yet it no more reigns in you (13): for is not the Holy Ghost he who causes us not to let slip the bridle, and give liberty willingly to our naughty and vile desires (14), as they are accustomed, whose eyes the prince of this world blinds (15), or else who moves us to pray when we are cold, and slothful? who stirs up in us those unspeakable groans (16)? who is he that when we have sinned (yea and sometimes willingly and wittingly) engenders in us an hate

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of the sin committed, and not for the fear of punishment which we have therefore deserved, but because we have offended our most merciful father (17)? Who is he, I say, who testifies unto us that our sighs are heard, and also moves us to call daily God, our God, and our Father, even at that time when we have trespassed against him (18)? Is it not that spirit, which is freely given to us as a gift, for a sure and certain pledge of our adoption (19)? Wherefore if we can gather by these effects, that we have faith, it follows that we are called and drawn effectually. And again, by this vocation, which we have declared properly to belong to the children of God; that is evidently proved which we took in hand to show, that is, forasmuch as we were predestinate by the eternal counsel and decree of God, (which he had determined in himself) to be adopted in his Son, therefore we were given to him, whereof the conclusion follows, that since by the most constant will of God (20), which only is grounded on itself, and depends on none other thing, we are predestinate, and no man can take us out of the hands of the Son: also seeing that to continue and persevere in the faith is necessary, it follows, I say, that the hope of our perseverance is certain, and so consequently our salvation: so that to doubt any more of it, is evil and wicked (21). So far then it is against reason to say, that this doctrine makes men negligent or dissolute, that to the contrary, this alone does open us the way, to search out and understand, by the power of the Holy Ghost, God’s deep secrets, as the apostle plainly teaches (22), to the end that when we know them (albeit we know them here in this world but after a sort (23), so that we must daily fight with the spiritual armor against distrust (24,) we may learn to behave ourselves not idly, but rather to persevere valiantly (25), to serve and honor God, to love him, to fear him, to call upon him, that daily more and more as says Peter, as much as in us lies, we may make our vocation and election certain (26). Moreover how shall he stand sure and constant against so many grievous temptations, both within and without, and against so many assaults of fortune (as the world does term it) that is not well resolved in this point which is most true? That is, that God according to his good will, does all things whatsoever they be, and what instruments and means soever he uses in working of the same, for the commodity of his elect (27). Of which number he is, that finds himself in this danger and trouble (28). As touching the other point, which concerns reprobation, because no man can call to mind the determinate purpose of election, but at the same instant the contrary will come to remembrance: (besides that in the holy Scripture these two are oftentimes

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joined together) it must needs be, that such as esteem this part curious or unprofitable, and therefore not to be talked of, do great injury to the Spirit of God. Therefore this part is to be weighed and considered, but with such modesty, that the height of God’s judgments may at all times bridle our curious fancies, in such sort that we do not apply it particularly to any man, nor to any certain company. For in this also it differs from election, because election (as has been said) is revealed to us by the Spirit of God within ourselves, not in others, whose hearts we can not know. And reprobation is ever hid from men, except it be disclosed by God, contrary to the common course of things. For who can tell, if God have determined to show mercy at the last hour of death, to him which has spent all his life past lewdly and wickedly (29)? But this trust [hope] ought not to encourage any man to maintain, and continue in his sin and ungodliness. For I speak of those things which we ought to consider in others, for the examples of such mercy of God are very rare, neither any man that is wise will promise to himself through a vain security and trust, that thing which is not in his own power (30.) It is therefore sufficient if we understand generally that there be vessels prepared to perdition (31): which, seeing God does not reveal unto us who they are, we ought both in example of life and prayer, diligently endeavor to win and recover to their salvation, yea even very such, of whom by seeing their horrible vices, we almost despise (32). And if we observe this order, we shall receive great fruit of this doctrine. For first by the knowledge hereof, we shall learn humbly to submit ourselves to the majesty of God, so that the more we shall fear and reverence him, the more we ought to labor to confirm in ourselves the testimony of our election in Christ (33). Furthermore when we shall diligently consider the difference, which through the mercy of God is between men, which are all alike subject to the same curse and malediction, it can not be, but we must acknowledge and embrace more earnestly the singular goodness of God, than if we did make this grace common to all men indifferently, or else referred the cause of the inequality of this grace to men (34). Besides this, when we know that faith is a special gift of God, shall we not receive it more willingly when it is offered, and be more careful to have the same to increase, than if we should imagine (as some do) that it is in every man’s power to turn and repent when he will, because (they say) the Lord would that all men should be saved, and will not the death of a sinner? Finally, when we see the doctrine of the Gospel not only despised of all the world, but also cruelly persecuted: and when we see so

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great falsehood and rebellion amongst men, what thing can better confirm and fortify us, than to be assured that nothing chances by fortune, that God knows his (35), and that they which commit these things (except God turn their hearts) are those which are predestined, not by chance, but by the sure and eternal counsel of God, to be as it were a glass, wherein the anger and power of God does appear? Truth it is, that these things can never be so commodiously and perfectly treated of, that man’s reason and wit cannot find out something to reply always to the contrary, yea and so kindles with desire of contradiction, that it is ready to bring an action against God, and to accuse and blame him as chief author of all things. But let the Devil roar and discontent himself, and the wicked kick and wince: yet their own conscience shall reprove and condemn them (36) when as ours, being confirmed in the truth, by the grace and mercy of our God, shall deliver and free us (37), in the day of Christ. To whom with the Father, and the holy Ghost, praise, glory, and honor be given for ever. So be it.

Notes of the eight chapter.

(1) Gal. 2.21; Rom. 11.6.
(2) John 6.44,45, and in divers places besides.
(3) Rom. 8.29,30; 9.10,11, and the whole chapter; 1 Cor. 2.10; Eph. 1.4,5,9; 2 Tim. 1.9; 1 Pet. 1.2, and in divers places besides.
(4) Matt. 10.22.
(5) Rom. 5.1,5; Matt. 5.12; 24.48.
(6) Rom. 8.14.
(7) Rom. 8.29,30; Eph. 1.4,5,9.
(8) John 10.27.
(9) Rom. 5.2; 8.38; 1 Cor. 2.10,11; 2 Tim. 1.7; 1 John 3.24.
(10) Psalm 95.7,8; John 10.27.
(11) 2 Cor. 13.5.
(12) Gal. 4.6; 1 John 3.24; 1 Cor. 2.10,11, and in divers other places which we have already alleged. (13) Rom. 6, almost through the whole chapter; 1 John 3.9. (14) Rom. 6.11,12; Eph. 4.29,30.
(15) 2 Cor. 4.4.
(16) Rom. 8.26.
(17) Rom. 7.24.
(18) Rom. 8.15,16.
(19) Rom. 8.27; Eph. 4.30; 1.13,14; 2 Cor. 1.22, and in other places oftentimes.
(20) Rom. 11.29; Heb. 6.17; 2 Tim. 2.19.
(21) Rom. 8.38; John 3.33; Rom. 4.20,21; 5.5; Eph. 3.12; Heb. 4.16; 1 Cor. 1.9; 1 Thes. 5.24; Heb. 10.22,23.
(22) 1 Cor. 2.10-12; Rom. 8.16; 1 John 3.24.
(23) 1 Cor. 13.9. (24) 1 Tim. 6.12; Gal. 5.17.
(25) Rom. 6.1; Heb. 10.23,24; James 3.17,18.
(26) 2 Pet. 1.10.
(27) Rom. 8.28,31, even to the very end of the chapter; Job 13.15; Rom. 5.3; James 1.2.
(28) Rom. 8.16,38,39.
(29) Luke 23.43.
(30) James 4.13-15; 2 Tim. 2.25; Luke 12.20.
(31) Rom. 9.21; 2 Tim. 2.20.
(32) Matt. 5.16; 1 Cor. 9.22; 1 Pet. 2.12.
(33) Phil. 2.12; 1 Pet. 1.17; Rom. 11.20.
(34) Rom. 9.23.
(35) 2 Tim. 2.18,19.
(36) Rom. 2.15.
(37) 1 Pet. 3.21.

The Decades of Heinrich Bullinger

Fifty Sermons Divided into Five Decades Containing the Chief and Principle Points of Christian Religion
(1587 English Translation)

Table of Contents Prepared by
Ryan Glomsrud M.A. (D.Phil. Cand., Pembroke College, Oxon)

Volume I

  1. The Preface (pp. 1-11)
  2. Of the Four General Synods or Councils (pp. 12-35)
  3. The First Decade of Sermons (pp. 36- 192)
    1. First Sermon: Of the Word of God; the cause of it; and how, and by whom, it was revealed to the world (36-57)
    2. Second Sermon: Of the Word of God; to whom, and to what end, it was revealed; also in what manner it is to be heard; and that it doth fully teach the whole doctrine of godliness (57-70)
    3. Third Sermon: Of the sense and right exposition of the word of God, and by what manner of means it may be expounded (70-81)
    4. Fourth Sermon: Of true faith; from whence it cometh; that it is an assured belief of the mind, whose only stay is upon God and his Word (81-97)
    5. Fifth Sermon: That there is one only true faith, and what the virtue thereof is (97-104)
    6. Sixth Sermon: That the faithful are justified by faith without the law and works (104-122)
    7. Seventh Sermon: Of the first articles of the Christian faith contained in the Apostles’ Creed (122-140)
    8. Eighth Sermon: Of the latter articles of the Christian faith contained in the Apostles’ Creed (140-157)
    9. Ninth Sermon: Of the latter articles of Christian faith contained in the Apostles’ Creed (157-180)
    10. Tenth Sermon: Of the love of God and Neighbor (180-192)
  4. The Second Decade of Sermons (pp. 193-435)
    1. First Sermon: Of laws, and of the law of nature, then of the laws of men (193-209)
    2. Second Sermon: Of God’s law, and of the two first commandments of the first table (209-237)
    3. Third Sermon: Of the third precept of the Ten Commandments, and of swearing (237-253)
    4. Fourth Sermon: Of the fourth precept of the first table, that is, of the order and keeping of the Sabbath-Day (253-267)
    5. Fifth Sermon: Of the first precept of the second table, which is in order the fifth of the Ten Commandments, touching upon honour due to the parents (267-298)
    6. Sixth Sermon: Of the second precept of the second table, which is in order the sixth of the Ten Commandments, thou shalt not kill: and of the magistrate (298-322)
    7. Seventh Sermon: Of the office of the magistrate, whether the care of religion appertain to him or no, and whether he may make laws and ordinances in cases of religions (323-344)
    8. Eighth Sermon: Of judgment, and the office of the judge; that Christians are not forbidden to judge; of revengement and punishment; whether it be lawful for a magistrate to kill the guilty; wherefore, when, how, and what the magistrate must punish; whether he may punish offenders in religion or no (345-369)
    9. Ninth Sermon: Of war; whether it be lawful for a magistrate to make war. What the Scripture teacheth touching war. Whether a Christian man may bear the office of a magistrate. And of the duty of subjects (370-393)
    10. Tenth Sermon: Of the third precept of the second table, which is in order the seventh of the Ten Commandments; thou shalt not commit adultery of wedlock; against all intemperance; of continency (393-435)

Volume II

  1. Dedication to Prince Edward VI, King of England and France (pp. 3-16)
  2. The Third Decade of Sermons (pp. 17-432)
    1. First Sermon: Of the fourth precept of the second table, which is in order the eighth of the Ten Commandments, thou shalt not steal. Of the owning and possessing of proper goods, and of the right and lawful getting of the same; against sundry kinds of theft (17-48)
    2. Second Sermon: Of the lawful use of earthly goods; that is, how we may rightly possess, and lawfully spend, the wealth that is rightly and justly gotten; of restitution, and alms-deeds (48-64)
    3. Third Sermon: Of the patient bearing and abiding of sundry calamities and miseries; and also of the hope and manifold consolation of the faithful (64-111)
    4. Fourth Sermon: Of the fifth and sixth precepts of the second table, which are in order the ninth and tenth of the Ten Commandments, that is, thou shalt not speak false witness against they neighbor; and, though shalt not covet they neighbor’s house, & c. (111-124)
    5. Fifth Sermon: Of the ceremonial law of God, but specifically of the priesthood, time, and place appointed for the ceremonies (125-167)
    6. Sixth Sermon: Of the sacraments of the Jews; of their sundry sorts of sacrifices, and certain other things pertaining to the ceremonial law (167-217)
    7. Seventh Sermon: Of the judicial laws of God (217-236)
    8. Eighth Sermon: Of the use or effect of the law of God, and of the fulfilling and abrogating of the same; of the likeness and difference of both the testaments and people, the Old and the New (236-300)
    9. Ninth Sermon: Of Christian liberty, and of offences. Of good works, and the reward thereof (300-357)
    10. Tenth Sermon: Of sin, and of the kinds thereof; to wit, of original and actual sin, and of sin against the Holy Ghost; and lastly, of the most sure and just punishment of sins (358-432)

Volume III

  1. The Fourth Decade of Sermons (pp. 1-114)
    1. First Sermon: Of the Gospel of the grace of God, who hath given his Son unto the world, and in Him all things necessary to salvation, that we, believing in Him, might obtain eternal life (1-55)
    2. Second Sermon: Of repentance, and the causes therefore; of confession, and remission of sins; of satisfaction and indulgences; of the old and new man; of the power or strength of men, and the order of things pertaining to repentance (55-114)
  2. Dedication to Edward VI, King of England and France (pp. 115-122)
  3. The Fourth Decade of Sermons CONTINUED (pp. 123-408)
    1. Third Sermon: Of God; of the true knowledge of God, and of the diverse ways how to know him; that God is one in substance and three in persons (123-173)
    2. Fourth Sermon: That God is the creator of all things, and governeth all things by his providence; where mention is also made of the goodwill of God to usward, and of predestination (173-194)
    3. Fifth Sermon: Of adoring or worshipping, of invocating or calling upon, and of serving the only, living, true, and everlasting God; also of true and false religion (194-238)
    4. Sixth Sermon: That the Son of God is unspeakably begotten of the Father; that He is consubstantial with the Father, and therefore true God. That the selfsame Son is true man; consubstantial with us; and therefore true God and Man, abiding in two unconfounded natures, and in one undivided Person (238-273)
    5. Seventh Sermon: Of Christ, King and Priest; of His only and everlasting kingdom and priesthood; and of the name of a Christian (273-297)
    6. Eighth Sermon: Of the Holy Ghost, the third person in the Trinity to be worshipped, and of His divine power (297-326)
    7. Ninth Sermon: Of good and evil spirits; that is, of the holy angels of God, and of devils or evil spirits; and of their operations (327-365)
    8. Tenth Sermon: Of the reasonable soul of man; and of his most certain salvation after the death of the his body (365-408)

Volume IV

  1. Biographical Notice of Henry Bullinger (pp. vii-xxxi)
  2. The Fifth Decade of Sermons (pp.3-526)
    1. First Sermon: Of the holy catholic church; what it is, how far it extendeth, by what marks it is known, from whence it springeth, how it is maintained and preserved, whether it may err. Also of the power and studies of the church (3-48)
    2. Second Sermon: That there is one catholic church; that without the church there is no light or salvation. Against schismatics. Wherefore we depart from the upstart church of Rome. That the church of God is the house, vineyard, and kingdom of God; and the body, sheepfold, and spouse of Christ; a mother and a virgin (49-92)
    3. Third Sermon: Of the ministry, and the ministries of God’s word; wherefore and for what end they are instituted of God. That the orders given by Christ unto the church in times past were equal. Whence and how the prerogative of ministries sprang, and of the supremacy of the bishop of Rome (93-127)
    4. Fourth Sermon: Of calling unto the ministry of the Word of God. What manner of men, and after what fashion, ministers of the Word must be ordained in the church. Of the keys of the church. What the office of them is that be ordained. Of the manner of teaching the church; and of the holy life of the pastors (128-163)
    5. Fifth Sermon: Of the form and manner how to pray to God; that is, of the calling on the name of the Lord; where also the Lord’s Prayer is expounded; and also singing, thanksgiving, and the force of prayer is entreated (163-226)
    6. Sixth Sermon: Of signs, and the manner of signs; of sacramental signs: what a sacrament is; of whom, for what causes, and how many sacraments were instituted of Christ for the Christian church; of what things they do consist; how these are consecrated; how the sign and the thing signified in the sacraments are either joined together or distinguished; and of the kind of speeches used in the sacraments (226-293)
    7. Seventh Sermon: That we must reason reverently of sacraments; that they do not give grace, neither have grace included in them. Again, what the virtue and lawful end and use of the sacraments is. That they profit not without faith; that they are not superfluous to the faithful; and that they do not depend upon the worthiness or unworthiness of the minister (293-351)
    8. Eighth Sermon: Of holy baptism; what it is; by whom, and when it was instituted, and that there is but one baptism of water. Of the baptism of fire. Of the rite or ceremony of baptism; how, of whom, and to whom it must be administered. Of baptism by midwives; and of infants dying without baptism. Of the baptism of infants. Against Anabaptism or re-baptizing; and of the power of efficacy of baptism (351-401)
    9. Ninth Sermon: Of the Lord’s holy supper; what it is, by whom, when, and for whom it was instituted; after what sort, when, and how oft it is to be celebrated, and of the ends thereof. Of the true meaning of the words of the super, “This is my body.” Of the presence of Christ in the supper. Of the true eating of Christ’s body. Of the worthy and unworthy eaters thereof: and how every man ought to prepare himself unto the Lord’s supper (401-478)
    10. Tenth Sermon: Of certain institutions of the church of God. Of schools. Of ecclesiastical goods, and the use and abuse of the same. Of churches and holy instruments of Christians. Of the admonition and correction of the ministers of the church, and of the whole church. Of matrimony. Of widows. Of virgins. Of monks. What the church of Christ determineth concerning the sick; and of funerals and burials (478-526)
  3. Appendix I: Dedication to the Marque of Dorset (pp. 528-545)
  4. Appendix II: Dedication to Masters Gualter, Simler, etc. (pp. 546-558)
  5. Index of Subjects and Persons (pp. 559-586)
  6. Index of Various Writers Quoted and Referred to (pp. 587-590)

Summary Of Zwingli On Baptism

Exposition of the Articles (1524)

© R. Scott Clark, 2000; 2014.

  1. Baptism is being enrolled by an “oath of allegiance” (sacramentum) into the church visible, an initiation into the people of God.
  2. If there is one people of God, with one faith, in one Savior, then it follows that the signs and seals of that salvation, Savior and faith, have not changed radically.
  3. Thus, he appealed to Colossians 2.11–12, where Paul linked circumcision and baptism, as evidence that Christian parents ought also to administer the sign of the covenant to their children.
  4. He agreed with Luther that the Sacraments strengthen faith, but he was clear to say that they do not give it. This is the work of the Spirit through the Word.
  5. Against the Anabaptists (i.e., Schwenkfelders) he argued that they added to SS by denying paedobaptism. NT is silent, therefore the command to administer the sign of the covenant continues to apply today.
  6. By forbidding it, they were adding to SS and doing exactly what Jesus said not to do: forbidding the children to come to him!
  7. If we deny that children should be baptized, then we must deny that women should come to the table, because there is no positive evidence that they were communicated in NT.
  8. If John’s baptism is substantially the same as Christ’s, then there is no categorical necessity of being discipled before baptism since John’s disciples had not even heard of Christ before they were baptized. John’s baptism was prospective and Christ’s retrospective.
  9. Certainly children were baptized in the OT. All Israel, children and adults were baptized with Moses in the Red Sea (1 Cor 10).
  10. Children of believers are born with original sin, but not original guilt and are therefore eligible for baptism.
  11. How can the children of NT believers be worse off than the children of the Jews who received the sign of the covenant, since this is a better covenant?
  12. The sign of initiation, in both covenants, always entailed a pledge to renew it with one’s children, hence the sign.

A Brief Outline Of Luther’s Bondage Of The Will

© R. S. Clark, 2000; 2014.

I Luther’s Critique of Erasmus (2/3)

II Luther’s Positive Development of the Doctrine of Predestination from SS (1/3)

Major propositions:

1 A fallen sinner is totally unable to cooperate with divine grace.

2 Salvation is exclusively the result of divine monergism

3 God foreknows what he does and does what he foreknows

4 To say that a fallen sinner has the power to cooperate with divine grace is a denial of the necessity of Christ’s work.

5 The human will is in bondage to sin because of our union with Adam in his fall

6 Everything happens according to the divine foreknowledge and will and therefore whatever occurs is, in this sense, ‘necessary’ but not ‘compulsory’.

7 The regenerate and unregenerate act according to their respective wills

8 Necessity does not destroy moral responsibility.

9 God’s will is immutable

10 Human free will is a denial of divine freedom

11 ‘Free will’ an ‘empty term’ which should be discarded

12 Predestination is the sine qua non of assurance .

13 God has predestined some to eternal life and others to eternal damnation.

14 Predestination is fundamentally paradoxical.

15 Ought does not imply can (Nominalism over realism).

16 ‘God preached’ must be distinguished from ‘God hidden’.

17 Sola gratia, Sola fide denies free will

18 Human inability disproves free will

Understanding Evangelicalism: A Select Bibliography

Organized Chronologically
Updated 2016

Henry, Carl F. H. The Uneasy Conscience of Modern Fundamentalism. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1947.

Packer, J. I. Fundamentalism and The Word of God. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1958.

Nash, Ronald H. The New Evangelicalism. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1963.

Van Til, Cornelius. Karl Barth and Evangelicalism. Philadelphia: Presbyterian and Reformed Pub. Co, 1964.

Marsden, George M. Fundamentalism and American Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982.

Hunter, James Davison. American Evangelicalism: Conservative Religion and the Quandary of Modernity. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1983.

— Evangelicalism and Modern America. Grand Rapids, 1984.

Horton, Michael S. Mission Accomplished. Nelson: 1986.

Marsden, George M. Reforming Fundamentalism: Fuller Seminary and the New Evangelicalism. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987.

Hunter, James Davison. Evangelicalism: The Coming Generation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Armstrong, John, ed. The Compromised Church. Wheaton, 1988.

Bebbington, David. Evangelicalism in Modern Britain: A History from the 1730s to the 1980s. London: Unwin Hyman, 1989.

—ed. The Agony of Deceit. Chicago: Moody Press, 1990.

Marsden, George M. Understanding Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991.

Dayton, Donald W., and Robert K. Johnston. The Variety of American Evangelicalism. Downers Grove, Ill: Inter-Varsity Press, 1991.

Horton, Michael S. ed. Power Religion. Moody Press, 1992.

Wells, David F. No Place for Truth Grand Rapids, 1993.

Horton, Michael S. Made in America . Grand Rapids: Baker, 1994.

— Putting Amazing Back into Grace. Grand Rapids, 1994.

— Beyond Culture Wars. Chicago, 1994.

Wells, David. God in the Wasteland. Grand Rapids, 1994.

Hart, Darryl G. Defending the Faith: J. Gresham Machen and the Crisis of Conservative Protestantism in Modern America. Grand Rapids, 1994.

Hart, D. G. Reckoning with the Past: Historical Essays on American Evangelicalism from the Institute for the Study of American Evangelicals. Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker Books, 1995.

Horton, Michael S. In the Face of God: The Dangers and Delights of Spiritual Intimacy. Waco: Word, 1996.

Boice, James Montgomery and Ben Sasse, Here We Stand: A Call From Confessing Evangelicals. Grand Rapids, 1996.

Armstrong, John ed. The Coming Evangelical Crisis. Chicago, 1996.

Horton, Michael S. We Believe: Recovering the Essentials of the Apostles’ Creed. Waco: Word, 1998.

Wells, David. Losing Our Virtue. Grand Rapids, 1998.

Horton, Michael S. ed. A Confessing Theology for Postmodern Times. Wheaton: Crossways, 2000.

— Where in the World is the Church? A Christian View of Culture and Your Role in It. Philipsburg: P&R, repr. 2002.

Balmer, Randall Herbert. The Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism. Louisville, Ky: Westminster John Knox Press, 2002.

—and John R. Muether. With Reverence and Awe: Returning the Basics of Reformed Worship. Philipsburg: P&R, 2002.

— The Lost Soul of American Protestantism. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002.

— That Old-Time Religion in Modern America: Evangelical Protestantism in the Twentieth Century. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2002.

Deconstructing Evangelicalism: Conservative Protestantism in the Age of Billy Graham. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2004.

From Billy Graham to Sarah Palin: Evangelicals and the Betrayal of American Conservatism. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 2011.

Worthen, Molly. Apostles of Reason: The Crisis of Authority in American Evangelicalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Select Bibliography Of The Reformation

(rev. January 2006) © R. Scott Clark, 2006. All Rights Reserved.

1. References

Bagchi, David and David C. Steinmetz, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Reformation Theology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).

Bauman, M., M. Klauber, ed., Historians of the Christian Tradition (Nashville, 1995).

Brady, T. A., H. A. Oberman, J. D. Tracy ed., Handbook of European History 1400-1600, 2 vol. (GR: Eerdmans, 1996).

Cross, F.L. and E. A. Livingstone, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. 3rd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Collins, J.F., Primer of Ecclesiasitical Latin (Washington, D.C., 1985).

Douglas, J.D., ed., New International Dictionary of the Christian Church (Grand Rapids,1978).

Edwards, P. ed., The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 8 vol. (NY: Macmillan, 1967).

Elwell, W., ed., Evangelical Dictionary of Theology (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2002)

— ed., Handbook of Evangelical Theologians (Grand Rapids, 1993).

Ferguson, S. New International Dictionary of Theology. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press, 1988.

Ferm. V., ed., An Encyclopedia of Religion. New York: Philosophical Library, 1945.

Hart, D. G. and M. Noll, ed. Dictionary of the Presbyterian and Reformed Tradition in America.Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press, 1999.

Hart, Trevor. ed. Dictionary of Historical Theology (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2001).

Hastings, J. ed., The Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, 13 vol. (New York, 1908-28)

Hillerbrand, H., ed., The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation (Oxford, 1996).

Höfer, J., ed., Lexikon für Theolgie unk Kirche, 10 vol. (Freiburg, 1957-67).

Houldon, Leslie, P. Byrne, Companion Encyclopedia of Theology (London, 1995).

Kepple, R. Reference Works for Theological Research (Lanham, MD, 1981).

Krause, G. and Gerhard Müller, ed., Theologische Realencyclopädie, (Berlin, 1977-).

Loetscher, L. , ed., The Twentieth Century Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, 2 vol. (Grand Rapids, 1955).

Maltby, William S. ed. Reformation EuropeA Guide to Research II (St. Louis, 1992).

McKim, D., and D. Wright, ed., Encyclopedia of the Reformed Faith (Louisville, 1992).

–ed., Historical Handbook of Major Biblical Interpreters. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity, 1998.

Schaff, P., ed., The Schaff-Herzogg Encyclopdia of Religious Knowledge, 13 vol. (New York, 1908-12).

Stelten, Leo. F. Dictionary of Ecclesiastical Latin. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1995.

The New Catholic Encyclopedia (New York, 1967-78).

Trevor A. Hart, ed., The Dictionary of Historical Theology (Carlisle UK and Grand Rapids: Paternoster and Eerdmans, 2000).

2. Theology

2.1. Dogmatic and Systematic Theologies

2.1.1. Patristic

Schaff, P. et al., The Ante-Nicene, Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers, 32 vol. (Edinburgh, 1884-).

2.1.2. Medieval

Aquinas, Thomas. Summa theologiae, 61 vol. [Blackfriars E.T.] (Cambridge, 1964-1981).

—— Summa Theologica, 5 vol. (Westminster, MD [repr.] 1981).

Ockham, William. Quodlibetal Questions (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999).

2.1.3. Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Protestants

Ames, William The Marrow of Theology, trans. John Dykstra Eusden (Durham, NC, 1983).

Arminius, James. The Writings of James Arminius, 3 vol. trans. and ed. J. Nichols and W.R. Bagnall (Grand Rapids, repr. 1977)

Beza, Theodore. The Christian Faith. trans. James Clark (East Sussex, 1992).

A Little Book of Christian Questions and Responses, trans. K. M. Summers (Allison Park, PA: Pickwick, 1986).
NB: Q. 160 should read, “He means we are not to keep the works of the ceremonial law.”

Bucanus, William. Institutions of the Christian Religion. trans. R. Hill. (London, 1606).

Calvin, John. Institutes of the Christian Religion.
Available chiefly in three English editions. The Battles’ translation published in the LCC series is the standard critical edition. The older Beveridge edition is available on-line at: http://ccel.wheaton.edu/calvin/institutes/icr1.txt. The Allen edition is also serviceable. The Battles’ trans. of the 1536 edn was published in English by Eerdmans in 1986. The Latin text of the Institutes is available in the Opera Selecta, 5 vol. ed. Peter Barth and W. Niesel (Munich, 1926-62) and in the Corpus Reformatorum, ed. C.G. Bretschneider. 101 vol. (Halle, 1834-1959) as well as in the Tholuck edn (Edinburgh, 1874). His commentaries are widely available in English translation in two editions.

— Calvin’s Calvinism: Treatises on the Eternal Predestination of God and the Secret Providence of God, trans., Henry Cole (Cambridge, 1856 repr.)

— Come out from among Them: Anti-Nicodemite Writings of John Calvin. Translated by Seth Skolnitksy. Geneva: Protestant Heritage Press, 2001.

— Sermons on Galatians, trans. A. Golding (London, 1574, repr. 1995).

— Sermons on Job. Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 1993.

— Sermons on Melchizedek and Abraham: Justification, Faith and Obedience. Translated by T. Stocker. Willow Street, PA: Old Paths, 2000.

— Treatises Against the Anabaptists etc. (Grand Rapids, 1982)

— The Bondage and Liberation of the Will. A Defence of the Orthodox Doctrine of Human Choice against Pighius. Translated by G. I. Davies. Edited by A. N. S. Lane. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1996.

— Men, Women, and Order in the Church. Dallas: Presbyterian Heritage Publications, 1992.

— Concerning Scandals (Grand Rapids, 1978)

— Instruction in Faith (1537) (Phila., 1959)

— Theological Treatises (Phila., 1954)

— Tracts Tracts & Treatises 7 vol. (Grand Rapids, repr. 1983).

— Sermons on Psalm 119. Translated by TS. Audabon, NJ, 1996.

— Sermons on Ten Commandments (Grand Rapids, 1980)

— Sermons on Deuteronomy. Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 1987.

— Sermons on Ephesians (Edinburgh, repr 1973)

— Sermons on the Saving Work of Christ (Grand Rapids, 1950)

— Sermons on Timothy and Titus (Edinburgh, repr. 1983)

— Sermons on the Book of Micah. Translated by Benjamin Wirt Farley. Edited by Benjamin Wirt Farley. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2003.

— Ecclesiastical Advice (Edinburgh, 1991)

— Sermons on Election and Reprobation. Translated by J. Field. Willow Street, PA: Old Paths, 1996.

Chemnitz, M. Loci Theologici 2 vol. trans. J.A.O. Preus (St Louis, 1989).

Heppe, Heinrich. Reformed Dogmatics, trans. G.T. Thomson (Grand Rapids, ).
The German edn with the Latin texts is: Die Dogmatik der evangelisch-reformirten Kirche. Elberfeld, 1861.

Johnson, W.S. and J.H. Leith, ed., Reformed Reader: A Sourcebook in Christian Theology, vol.1. (Louisville, 1993).

Kidd, B.J. Documents of the Continental Reformation (Oxford, 1911).

Kolb, R. Martin Luther as Prophet, Teacher and Hero: Images of the Reformer, 1520-1620(Grand Rapids: Baker, 1999).

Luther, Martin. Works. 55 vol. trans. and ed. J. Pelikan and H.T. Lehmann (Philadelphia and St. Louis,
1955-). The German and Latin texts are available in Luthers Werke Kritische Gesamtausgabe(Weimar, 1883-). There is also a six volume edition of Luther’s works called the ‘Philadelphia edition’.

— Bondage of the Will trans. Packer and Johnston (Cambridge, 1973)

Works 6 vol. (Phila., 1915)

— Three Treatises (Phila., 1970)

— Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans (Grand Rapids, 1954)

Melanchthon, Philip. Loci Communes 
The Loci Communes were the first Protestant dogmatics and crucially important for that reason alone. The 1521 edn particularly represents a brilliant distillation of Luther’s theology. Exists in three English editions. The 1521 edn. is found the the Library of Christian Classics edition,Melanchthon and Bucer, and the 1543 edn is published by Concordia Publishing House. The 1555 edn is available in Melanchton on Christian DoctrineLoci Communes 1555. ed. Clyde L. Manschreck (Oxford, 1965).

— Commentary on Romans. trans. Fred Kramer (St. Louis : Concordia, 1992).

Muller, R. A., Post-Reformation Reformed Dogmatics 4 vol. 2nd edn (Grand Rapids, 2003).

Olevian, A Firm Foundation, trans. and ed., L. Bierma (Grand Rapids, 1995).

Perkins, William. The Work of William Perkins (Oxford, 1970)

Polanus, Amandus. The Substance of the Christian Religion. trans. E.W. (London, 1595).

Rollock, Robert. Select Works of Robert Rollock. 2 vol. ed. William M.Gunn. (Ediburgh, 1849).

Ursinus, Zacharias. Commentary on the Heidelberg Catechism. trans. and ed., G. Willard (Philipsburg, 1985).

Vermigli, Peter Martyr. The Peter Martyr Library. ed. J. P. Donnelly and J. C. Mclelland (Kirksville: Sixteenth Century Essays and Studies, Truman State University.

Zwingli, H. Commentary on True and False Religion, ed., Samuel Macauley Jackson and C.N. Heller (Durham, 1981).

— and Bullinger (Library of Christian Classics) ed. G.W. Bromiley (Phila., 1953)

— Selected Works (Philadelphia, 1972).

— Early Writings (New York, 1912).

— On Providence and Other Essays, ed. S. M. Jackson, W.J. Hinke (Durham, NC, repr. 1983).

2.2. Historical Theologies

Berkhof, L., The History of Christian Doctrines (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 1969).

Bradley, James E. and R.A. Muller, Church History: An Introduction to Research, Reference Works and Methods (Grand Rapids, 1995).

Bromiley, G., Historical Theology: An Introduction (Grand Rapids, 1978).

Cunningham, William. Historical Theology, 2 vol (1862. Edinburgh, repr. 1979)

Farmer, C. The Gospel of John in the Sixteenth Century (OUP, 1997).

Hägglund, Bengt, History of Theology. trans. Gene L. Lund 3rd edn (St Louis, 1968).

McGiffert, A.C. History of Christian Thought. 2 vol. (New York, 1954).

McGrath, A.E., ed., The Christian Theology Reader (Oxford: Blackwells, 1994)

Historical Theology (Oxford: Blackwells, 1998).

Iustitia Dei. A History of the Christian Doctrine of Justification 2 vol. (Cambridge: CUP, 1986-)

Olson, R. The Story of Christian Theology (IVP, 1999).

Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian TraditionA History of the Development of Doctrine. 5 vol. Chicago, 1984.

Ritschl, Albrecht. A Critical History of the Christian Doctrine of Justification and Reconciliation. trans. John S. Black. Edinburgh, 1872.

Seeburg, R., History of Doctrines, 2 vol. (Philadelphia, 1904)

Shedd, W.G.T., A History of Christian Doctrine, 2 vol. (New York, 1909)

Tillich, Paul. A History of Christian Thought, ed. Carl E. Braaten (New York, 1972).

3. Humanism

Bainton, R. Erasmus of Christendom (New York, 1969)

Bouwsma, William J. “Renaissance and Reformation: An Essay in Their Affinities and Connections.” In Luther and the Dawn of the Modern Era. ed. Heiko Oberman (Leiden, 1974).

— The Waning of the Renaissance 1550-1640 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2000).

Copenhaver, B.P. and C.Scmitt, Renaissance Philosophy (Oxford, 1992)

Emerton, E. Humanism and Tyranny (Gloucester, MA, 1964)

Breen, Quirinius. Christianity and Humanism. Grand Rapids, 1968.

Hughes, Philip Edgcumbe. LefévrePioneer of Ecclesiastical Reform in France. Grand Rapids, 1984.

— “Jacques LeFèvre d’Etaples (c.1455-1536).” Calvinus ReformatorHis Contribution toTheologyChurch and State. Pochestroom, 1982.

Fleischer, M. The Harvest of Humanism in C. Europe (St Louis, 1992)

Kelley, Donald R. Foundations of Modern Historical Scholarship (New York, 1970)

— The Beginning of Ideology. Cambridge, 1981.

Kristeller, Paul Oskar. Renaissance Thought and its Sources, ed. Michael Mooney. New York, 1979.

Linder, Robert D. “Calvinism and Humanism: The First Generation.” Church History 44 (1975): 167-81.

Nauert, Charles G. “The Clash of Humanists and Scholastics: An Approach to Pre-Reformation Controversies.” Sixteenth Century Journal 4 (1973): 1-18.

Rummel, E. The Humanist-Scholastic Debate (Cambridge, MA, 1995)

Spitz, Lewis W. The Religious Renaissance of the German Humanists. Cambridge, MA, 1963.

— The Religious Renaissance of the German Humanists. Cambridge, Mass. 1963.

— “The Course of German Humanism.” Itinerarium ItalicumThe Profile of the ItalianReniassance in the Mirror of its European Transformations ed. H.A. Oberman and T.A. Brady. Leiden, 1975.

Trinkaus, C. The Scope of Renaissance Humanism. Ann Arbor, 1983.

4. Reformation Histories and Backgrounds

This is a good bibliography.

Bainton, R.H. The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century. Boston, 1952.

Burchill, Christopher J. ‘The Urban Reformation and its Fate: Problems and Perspectives in the Consolidation of the German Protestant Movement’. The Historical Journal 27 (1984): 997-1010.

Cameron, Euan. The European Reformation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991).

Dorner, I.A. History of Protestant Theology. 2 vol. trans. George Robson and Sophia Taylor. Edinburgh, 1871.

Friedman, J. ed. RegnumReligio et RatioEssays Presented to Robert MKindon, (Kirksville, 1987).

Gregory, Brad S. Salvation at Stake: Christian Martyrdom in Early Modern Europe(Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 1999).

 Heinze, Rudolph W.   Reform and Conflict : from the Medieval World to the Wars of Religion, A.D. 1350-1648. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2005.

Kirk, James. ed. Humanism and ReformThe Church in EuropeEngland and Scotland14001643. Oxford, 1991.

Lindsay, Thomas M. A History of The Reformation. 2 vol. New York, 1922.

Littell, F. H. ed. Reformation StudiesEssays Honoring Roland HBainton (Richmond, 1962)

Oberman, H.A. and Frank A. James III Via Augustini: Augustine in the Later Middle Ages, Renaissance and Reformation (Leiden, 1991)

Raitt, J. ed. Shapers of Religious Traditions in GermanySwitzerlandand Poland 15001600(New Haven, 1981)

5. Reformation Studies

Avis, Paul D. L. The Church in the Theology of the Reformers. Basingstoke, 1981.

Baker, D., Reform and Reformation: England and the Continent (Oxford, 1979).

Benedict, Philip. Christ’s Church Purely Reformed: A Social History of Calvinism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002).

Cameron, Euan ‘The Late Renaissance and the Unfolding Reformation in Europe’. ed. Derek Baker. Reform and ReformationEngland and the Continent c.1500– c.1750. Oxford, 1979.

— The Reformation of the Heretics (Oxford, 1984)

Chadwick, Owen. Reformation (New York, 1964)

Clark, R. S. “Regensburg and Regensburg II,” Modern Reformation (September/October, 1998).

Cochrane, Arthur C. ed. Reformed Confessions of the Sixteenth Century. Philadelphia, 1966.

Cunningham, Andrew and Ole Peter Grell, The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse: Religion, War, Famine and Death in Reformation Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

Cunningham, William. The Reformers and the Theology of the Reformation. Edinburgh, 1967.

Dickens, A.G. English Reformation (2nd edn)

— Reformation and Society (New York, 1966)

Dixon, C. Scott, ed., The German Reformation (Oxford: Blackwell, 1999)

Ebling, Gerhard. ‘On the Doctrine of the Triplex usis legis in the Theology of the Reformation’.Word and Faith. trans. J. W. Leith. London, 1963.

Gerrish, B.A. ‘Biblical Authority and the Reformation’ Scottish Journal of Theology 10 1957: 337-51

—— ed., Reformers in Profile (Phila: Fortress, 1967)
Vignettes on late ME moral Reformers, 16c, Protestants and counter-Reformation figures.

Hall, P. ed. The Harmony of Protestant Confessions (repr. 1842, 1992)

Hillerbrand, Hans J. The World of the Reformation. London, 1975.

–.The Protestant Reformation. ed. New York, 1968.

Hsia, R. Po-Chia. Social Discipline in the Reformation: Central Europe 1550-1750. London, 1989.

Kidd, B.J. ed. Documents Illustrative of the Continental Reformation. Oxford, 1911.

Knox, R. Buick. ed. ReformationConformity and Dissent. Knox. London, 1977.

Leonard, E.G. A History of Protestantism. ed. H.H. Rowley and trans. J.M.H. Reid and R. M. Bethell. 2 vol. London, 1965-7.

Littell, Franklin H. ed., Reformation Studies. Essays in Honor of Roland H. Bainton (Richmond, 1962).

Lortz, Joseph. The Reformation in Germany. 2 vol. trans. Ronald Walls. London, 1968.

McGrath, Alister E. The Intellectual Origins of the European Reformation. Oxford, 1987.

— Reformation ThoughtAn Introduction. Oxford, 1988.

McNeill, J.T. ‘Natural Law in the Teaching of the Reformers’. Journal of Religion 26 (1946): 168-182.

Möller, Bernd. Imperial Cities and the ReformationThree Essays, trans., H.C. Erik Middlefort and Mark U. Edwards. Philadelphia, 1972.

Noll, M. ed. Confessions and Catechisms of the Reformation (Grand Rapids, 1991)

Oberman , H.A. ‘Europa Afflicta: The Reformation of the Refugees’ Archive fürReformationgeschicte 83 1992: 91-111.

— Forerunners of the ReformationThe Shape of Late Medieval Thought. Philadelphia, 1981.

— Masters of the ReformationThe Ermergence of a New Intellectual Climate in Europe. trans. D. Martin. Cambridge, 1981.

— The Dawn of the Reformation. T & T Clark: Edinburgh, 1986.

— Luther: Man Between God and the Devil. trans., Eileen Walliser-Schwarzbart. [reprint] London, 1993.

— Harvest of Medieval Theology. Cambridge, Mass, 1963.

— Luther and the Dawn of the Modern Era. Leiden, 1974.

— and T.A. Brady. ed. Itinerarium ItalicumThe Profile of the Italian Renaissance in the Mirrorof its European TransformationsDedicated to Paul Oskar Kristeller. ed. H. A. Oberman and T.A. Brady. Leiden, 1975.

— The Reformation. Roots and Ramifications. trans. Alan Colin Gow. Edinburgh, 1994.

Old, Hughes Oliphant. The Age of the Reformation. 5 vols. Vol. 4, The Reading and Preaching of the Scriptures in the Worship of the Christian Church (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2002).

Ozment, Steven E. ed. Reformation EuropeA Guide to Research. St. Louis, 1982.

— The Age of Reform 12501550An Intellectual and Religious History of Late Medieval andReformation Europe. London, 1980.

— ed. The Reformation in Medieval Perspective. Chicago, 1971.

— The Reformation in the CitiesThe Appeal of Protestantism to Sixteenth Century Germanyand Switzerland. London, 1975.

Pauck, W., The Heritage of the Reformation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961).

Rupp, Gordon. Patterns of Reformation. London, 1969.

Scribner, R.W. The German Reformation. London, 1986.

Sessions, Kyle C. and Phillip N. Bebb, ed. Pietas et SocietasNew Trends in ReformationSocial HistoryEssays in Honor of Harold JGrimm (Kirksville, 1985).

Spitz, Lewis W. ed. The Protestant Reformation. Englewood Cliffs, 1966.

— The Protestant Reformation 1517-1559. New York, 1985.

— The Renaissance and Reformation Movements. 2 vol. St. Louis, 1971.

Steinmetz, David C. Reformers in the Wings. Philadelphia, 1971.

Trevor-Roper, H. R. Religion, the Reformation and Social Change. Second ed., London, 1972.

6. Luther and Lutheranism

Althaus, Paul. The Theology of Martin Luther. trans. Robert C. Schultz. Philadelphia, 1966.

Atkinson, James. The Great Light: Luther and the Reformation (Grand Rapids, 1968).

——Martin Luther and the Birth of Protestantism (London, 1968).

Bagchi, D. V. N. Luther’s Earliest Opponents: Catholic Controversialists, 1518-1525. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1991.

Bainton, R.H. Here I Stand (1950).

Bornkamm, H. Luther and the Old Testament. Translated by E. C. Gritsch and R. Gritsch. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1969.

— Luther in Mid-Career 1521-1530, trans. E. T. Bachmann, ed. K. Bornkamm (Philadelphia, 1983).

Braaten, Carl E. and R. W. Jenson ed., Union with Christ: The New Finnish Interpretation of Luther (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998).

Brecht, M. Martin Luther: The Preservation of the Church 1532-1546, trans J. L. Schaaf (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1993),

Cargill-Thompson, W. D. J.. The Political Thought of Martin Luther Sussex, 1984

Heinrich Denifle, Luther and Lutherdom, trans. Raymond Volz (Somerset, OH: Torch Press, 1917)

Edwards, Mark U. Jr. Luther and the False Brethren (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1975).

Estes, James Martin. Peace, Order and the Glory of God: Secular Authority and the Church in the Thought of Luther and Melanchthon, 1518-1559. Leiden: Brill, 2005.

Farthing, John L. Thomas Aquinas and Gabriel Biel: Interpretations of St. Thomas Aquinas in German Nominalism on the Eve of the Reformation. Durham and London, 1988.

Gerrish, B.A. Grace and ReasonA Study in the Theology of Luther. Oxford, 1962

Green, Lowell C. “The Question of Theosis in the Perspective of Lutheran Christology,” inAll Theology Is Christology: Essays in Honor of David P. Scaer, edited by Dean O. Wenthe and David P. Scaer (Ft Wayne, IN: Concordia Theological Seminary Press, 2000)

Headley, J.M. Luther’s Use of Church History (New Haven, 1963).

Kolb, R. Martin Luther as Prophet, Teacher and Hero: Images of the Reformer 1520-1620(Grand Rapids: Baker, 1999).

Loewenich, Walther von. Luther’s Theology of the Cross. trans. H. J. A. Bouman (Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1976).

Lohse, Bernhard. Martin LutherAn Introduction to His Life and Work. Edinburgh, 1986.

— Martin Luther’s Theology: Its Historical and Systematic Development (Phila: Fortress, 1999).

Mackinnon, James. Luther and the Reformation. 4 vol. London, 1925-30.

Marty, Martin E. Martin Luther. New York: Viking Penguin, 2004.

McGrath, Alister E. Luthers Theology of the CrossMartin Luthers Theological Breakthrough. Oxford, 1985.

McSoreley, Harry J. Luther: Right or Wrong? An Ecumenical-Theological Study of Luther’s Major Work, the Bondage of the Will. Toronto, Amsterdam, London, and Minneapolis: Newman Press and Augsburg Publishing House, 1969.

Mannerma, Tuomo, ed., Tuomo Mannermaa and Kirsi Stjerna eds, Christ Present In Faith: Luther’s View Of Justification (Augsburg Fortress Publishers, repr. 2005).

Marius, R. Martin Luther: Christian Between God and Death (Harvard, 1999).

Oberman, H.A. Luther: Man Between God and the Devil (New Haven, 1989)

Pelikan, J. ed. Interpreters of Luther (Philadelphia, 1968).

Obedient Rebels: Catholic Substance and Protestant Principle in Luther’s Reformation (New York, 1964).

Plass, Ewald M., ed. What Luther Says. 3 vols. St Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1959.

Preus, Robert D. The Theology of Post-Reformation Lutheranism A Study of Theological Prolegomena. 2 vol. St. Louis, 1970.

— The Inspiration of ScriptureA Study of the theology of the Seventeenth Century Lutheran Dogmaticians (Mankato, MN, 1955).

Preus, H. A. The Communion of Saints: A Study of the Origin and Development of Luther’s Doctrine of the Church (Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1948)

Rupp, G. Luther’s Progress to the Diet of Worms 1521 (London, 1951)

The Righteousness of God (London, 1953)

Schmid, Heinrich. The Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church. Translated by Charles A. Hay and Henry E. Jacobs. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lutheran Publication Society, 1889.

Spitz, Lewis P. and Wenzel Lohff ed. DiscordDialogue and ConcordStudies in the LutheranReformations Formula of Concord (Philadelphia, 1977).

Steinmetz, David. C. Luther and StaupitzAn Essay in the Intellectual Origins of the ProtestantReformation. Durham, N.C. 1980.

—— Luther in Context (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1996)

James M. Stayer, ed., Martin Luther, German Saviour, Mc Gill-Queen’s Studies in the History of Religion (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2000)

Trueman, Carl R. “Is the Finnish Line a New Beginning? A Critical Assessment of the Reading of Luther Offered by the Helsinki Circle,” Westminster Theological Journal 65 (2003): 231-244

Watson, Philip S. Let God Be God! An Interpretation of the Theology of Martin Luther. London: The Epworth Press, 1947.

Wengert, Timothy J., ed. Harvesting Martin Luther’s Reflections on Theology, Ethics, and the Church. Edited by Paul Rorem, Lutheran Quarterly Books. Grand Rapids and Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2004.

7. Tyndale Studies

Tyndale, William. The Works of William Tyndale. Edited by Henry Walter. 2 vols, The Parker Society for the Publication of the Works of the Fathers and Early Writers of the Reformed English Church. Cambridge: The University Press, 1848-1849.

Cargill Thompson, W.D.J. ‘The Two Regiments: The Continental Setting of William Tyndale’s Political Thought’. Reform and ReformationEngland and the Continent c.1500– c.1750. ed. Derek Baker. Oxford, 1979.

Daniell, David, William Tyndale: A Biography. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994.

Dick, John A. R.,and Anne Richardson, ed., William Tyndale and the Law. Kirksville: Sixteenth Century Journal Publishers, 1994.

Edwards, Brian H., God’s Outlaw. Grand Rapids: Evangelical Press, 1976.

McGiffert, Michael. ‘William Tyndale’s Conception of Covenant’. Journal of EcclesiasticalHistory 32 (1981): 167-84.

Trueman, C. R. Luther’s Legacy: Salvation and English Reformers 1525-1556 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994).

8. Melanchthon Studies

Breen, Q. ‘The Subordination of Philosophy to Rhetoric in Melanchthon’ ARG 43 (1952)

Fraenkel, Pierre. Testimonia PatrumThe Function of the Patristic Argument in the Theology ofPhilip Melanchthon. Geneva, 1961.

Green, L. ‘Erasmus, Luther and Melanchthon on the Magnus Consensus: The Problem of the Old and the New in the Reformation and Today’ The Lutheran Quarterly 27 (1975).

Maag, Karin, ed., Melanchthon in Europe: His Work and Influence Beyond Wittenberg (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1999).

Manschrek, C.L. Melanchthonthe Quiet Reformer. New York, 1958.

— The Bible in Melanchthon’s Philosophy of Education’ Journal of Bible and Religion 23 (1955).

Meijering, E.P. Melanchthon and Patristic Thought. The Doctrines of Christ, Grace, the Trinity and the Creation. Leiden, 1983.

Meyer, Carl S. ‘Melanchthon, Theologian of Ecumenism’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 27 (1966).

Reed, A.C. ‘Melanchthon’s 1521 Loci Communes: The First Protestant Apology’ The Churchman

Rogness, Michael. Philip Melanchthon. Reformer Without Honor. Minneapolis, 1969.

Scheible, H. ‘Luther and Melanchthon’ trans. T. Wengert Lutheran Quarterly (1990)

Wengert, Timothy J., Law and Gospel: Philip Melanchthon’s Debate with John of Agricola of Eisleben over Poenitentia. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1997.

— Human Freedom, Christian RighteousnessPhilip Melanchthon’s Exegetical Dispute with Erasmus of Rotterdam. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Wengert is probably the leading scholar of Melanchthon in the English speaking world.

Zuck, Lowell H. ‘Heinrich Heppe: A Melanchthonian Liberal in the Nineteenth Century German Reformed Church’. Church History 51 (1982): 419-33.

— ‘Melanchthonianism and Reformed Theology in the Late 16th Century’ Controversy andConciliationThe Palatinate Reformation15591618. ed. Derk Visser. Pittsburgh, 1986.

9. Calvin and Calvinism

Anderson, Marvin W. ‘Peter Martyr, Reformed Theologian (1542-1562): His Letters to Heinrich Bullinger and John Calvin’. Sixteenth Century Journal 4 (1973): 41-64.

Armstrong, Brian G. Calvinism and the Amyraut HeresyProtestant Scholasticism andHumanism in SeventeenthCentury France. Madison, 1969.

Backus, Irena. ‘The Teaching of Logic in Two Protestant Academies at the End of the Sixteenth Century. The Reception of Zarabella in Strasbourg and Geneva’ Archiv fürReformationgeschicte 80 (1989): 240-51.

Balke, W. Calvin and the Anabaptist Radicals. trans. W.J. Heynen (Grand Rapids, 1981).

Baird, Henry Martyn. Theodre BezaThe Counsellor of the French Reformation. New York, 1899.

Barth, Karl., The Theology of John Calvin, trans. Geoffrey W. Bromiley (Grand Rapids, 1995).

Battles, Ford Lewis. ‘God Was Accommodating Himself to Human Capacity’. Interpretation 31 (1977): 19-38.

— ‘Calculus Fidei’. Calvinus Ecclesiae Doctor. ed. W. Neuser. Kampen, 1978.

— The Piety of John Calvin (Grand Rapids, 1978)

Bavinck, Herman. ‘Calvin and Common Grace’ Calvin and the Reformation trans. G. Vos. London, 1909.

Beardsley III. John W. Reformed DogmaticsJWollebiusGVoetiusFTurretin. New York, 1965.

Beeke, Joel R. Assurance of FaithCalvinEnglish Puritanism and the Dutch SecondReformation. New York, 1991.

— ‘Faith and Assurance in the Heidelberg Catechism and its Primary Composers: A Fresh Look at the Kendall Thesis’, Calvin Theological Journal 27 (1992): 39-67.

Bierma, Lyle D. ‘Covenant or Covenants in the Theology of Olevianus?’ Calvin TheologicalJournal 22 (1987): 228-250.

— ‘Federal Theology in the Sixteenth Century: Two Traditions?’ Westminster TheologicalJournal 45 (1983): 304-321.

— ‘Olevianus and the Authorship of the Heidelberg Catechism: Another Look’. SixteenthCentury Journal 13 (1982):17-27.

— ‘The Covenant Theology of Caspar Olevian’. Ph.D. Diss. Duke University, 1980.

— ‘The Role of Covenant Theology in Early Reformed Orthodoxy’. The Sixteenth CenturyJournal 21 (1990): 453-462.

— ‘Vester Grundt and the Origins of the Heidelberg Catechism’ Later CalvinismInternationalPerspectives Sixteenth Century Essays and Studies vol. 22 ed. W. Fred Graham Kirksville, MO, 1994.

— ed. An Introduction to the Heidelberg Catechism: Sources, History, and Theology. Edited by Richard A. Muller, Texts and Studies in Reformation and Post-Reformation Thought (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2005).

Bouwsma, William J. ‘Calvin and the Renaissance Crisis of Knowing’. Calvin TheologicalJournal 17 (1982): 190-211

— John CalvinA Sixteenth Century Portrait. Oxford, 1988.

Bray, John S. Theodore Bezas Doctrine of Predestination. Nieuwkoop, 1975.

Breen, Quirinus. John CalvinA Study in French Humanism. Grand Rapids, 1931

Burchill, Christopher, J. ‘On the Consolation of a Christian Scholar: Zacharias Ursinus (1534-1583) and the Reformation in Heidelberg’. Journal of Ecclesiastical History 37 (1986): 565-583.

— ‘Girolamo Zanchi: Portrait of a Reformed Theologian and His Work’. Sixteenth Century Journal 15 (1984): 185-207.

Butin, Philip. W. , ‘John Calvin’s Humanist Image of Popular Late-Medieval Piety and its Contribution to Reformed Worship’. Calvin Theological Journal 29 (1994): 419-31.

— Revelation, Redemption and Response. Calvin’s Trinitarian Understanding of the Divine-Human Relationship. New York, 1995.

Clark, R  Scott, “The Catholic-Calvinist Trinitarianism of Caspar Olevian,” Westminster Theological Journal 61(1999): 15-39.

— “The Authority of Reason in the Later Reformation: Scholasticism in Caspar Olevian and Antoine de La Faye,”Protestant ScholasticismEssays in Reassessment, ed., Carl Trueman, R. Scott Clark. Carlisle, UK: Paternoster, 1999.

— “Calvin and the Lex Naturalis,” Stulos Theological Journal 6 (1998): 1-22.

— & J. R. Beeke, “Ursinus, Oxford and the Westminster Divines.” The Westminster Confession into the 21st Century: Essays in Remembrance of the 350th Anniversary of the Publication of the Westminster Confession of Faith, ed. J. Ligon Duncan and Duncan Rankin. Reformed Academic Press, forthcoming.

— “Ridley, Latimer, and Cranmer: The Oxford Martyrs,” Reformation and Revival: A Quarterly Journal for Church Leadership: The Church, 7 (1998): 167-79.

— “The Belgic Confession – Article 14: Of the Creation and Fall,” Christian Observer 173.23 (December 1, 1995): 23.

— “The Belgic Confession- Article 15: Sin,” Christian Observer 173.24 (December, 1, 1995)

— “The Evangelical Fall from the Means of Grace,” The Compromised Church, ed. John Armstrong (Wheaton: Crossway, 1998).

— Caspar Olevian and the Substance of the Covenant: The Double Benefit of Christ. Rutherford Studies in Historical Theology, ed. David F. Wright and Donald Macleod (Edinburgh: Rutherford House, 2005).

—  “The Benefits of Christ: Double Justification in Protestant Theology before the Westminster Assembly,” in The Faith Once Delivered: Celebrating the Legacy of Reformed Systematic Theology and the Westminster Assembly (Essays in Honor of Dr. Wayne Spear), ed. Anthony T. Selvaggio (Phillipsburg: P&R Publishing, 2006)

Collinson, Patrick. The Elizabethan Puritan Movement. London, 1967.

Dent, C.M. Protestant Reformers in Elizabethan Oxford (Oxford, 1985)

deGreef, W. The Writings of John Calvin: An Introductory Guide trans. L.D. Bierma (Grand Rapids, 1993)

Dever, Mark E. Richard Sibbes. Puritanism and Calvinism in Late Elizabethan and Early Stuart England. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 2000.

Donnelly, John Patrick. ‘Calvinist Thomism’. Viator 7 (1976): 441-55.

— ‘Immortality and Method in Ursinus’s Theological Ambiance’ Controversy and Conciliation:The Palatinate Reformation15591618. ed. Derk Visser. Pittsburgh, 1986.

— ‘Italian Influences on the Development of Calvinist Scholasticism’. Sixteenth Century Journal7 (1976): 81-101.

— Calvinism and Scholasticism in Vermiglis Doctrine of Man and Grace. Leiden, 1976.

— ‘Immortality and Method in Ursinus’s Theological Ambiance’. Controversy and Conciliation:The Palatinate Reformation15591618. ed. Derk Visser. Pittsburgh, 1986.

Dowey, Edward A. The Knowledge of God in Calvins Theology. New York, 1952.

Duffield, G. ed. John Calvin. Courtenay Studies in Reformation Theology, I. Appleford, 1966.

Duke, Alistair, Gillian Lewis and Andrew Pettegree. ed. Calvinism in Europe 15401610ACollection of Documents. Manchester, 1992.

Eire, C.M.N. War Against the IdolsThe Reformation of Worship from Erasmus to Calvin. Cambridge, 1986.

Farthing, John L. ‘De Coniungio Spirituali: Jerome Zanchi on Ephesians 5:22-33′. Sixteenth Century Journal 24 (1993): 621-52.

— ‘Foedus Evangelicum: Jerome Zanchi on the Covenant’. Calvin Theological Journal 29 (1994): 149-67.

— ‘Christ and the Eschaton: the Reformed Eschatology of Jerome Zanchi’. Later Calvinism. International PerspectivesSixteenth Century Essays and Studies Vol., 22. ed., W. Fred Graham. Kirksville, 1994.

Foxgrover, David, ed. Calvin and the Company of Pastors, Calvin Studies Society Papers 2003. Grand Rapids: Calvin Studies Society, 2004.

Ganoczy, Alexandre. The Young Calvin. trans. David Foxgrover and Wade Provo. Edinburgh, 1977.

George, Timothy. ed. John Calvin and the ChurchA Prism of Reform. Louisvile, 1990.

Gerrish, B.A. ‘John Calvin and the Reformed Doctrine of the Lord’s Supper’. McCormickQuarterly 22 (1969): 85-98.

— Grace and Gratitude. Edinburgh, 1993.

— B. A. Gerrish, “John Calvin on Martin Luther,” in Interpreters of Luther: Essays in Honor of Wilhelm Pauck, ed. J. Pelikan (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1968)

Godfrey, W. Robert. ‘Biblical Authority in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries: A Question of Transition’, Scripture and Truth ed. D.A. Carson and John D. Woodbridge (Grand Rapids, 1983).

— ‘Reformed Thought on the Extent of the Atonement to 1618’. Westminster TheologicalJournal 37 (1975): 133-71.

— ‘Tensions within International Calvinism: The Debate on the Atonement at the Synod of Dordt 1618-1619’. Ph.D. Diss. Stanford University, 1974.

Graham, W. Fred ed. Later CalvinismInternational Perspectives. Kirksville, 1994

Grohman, D.D., The Genevan Reactions to the Saumur Doctrines of Hypothetical Universalism: 1635-1685. Th.D. thesis, Knox College, Toronto School of Theology, 1971.

Helm, Paul. Calvin and the Calvinists. Edinburgh, 1982.

— ‘Calvin (and Zwingli) on Divine Providence’. Calvin Theological Journal 29 (1994): 388-405.

Heppe, Heinrich. Reformed Dogmatics Set Out and Illustrated from the Sources. trans. G.T. Thomson. ed. E. Bizer. London. 1950.

Höpfl, Harro. The Christian Polity of John Calvin. Cambridge, 1982.

Jeon, J. K. Covenant theology : John Murray’s (1898-1975) and Meredith G. Kline’s (1922-) Response to the Historical Development of Federal Theology in Reformed Thought (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1999).

Johnson, John H. Leith and Robert A., ed. Papers Presented at the Ninth Colloquium on Calvin Studies, Calvin Studies Conference. Davidson College and Davidson Presbyterian Church, 1998.

Jones, S. Calvin and the Rhetoric of Piety (Louisville: WJKP, 1995).

Kantzer, Kenneth S. ‘John Calvin’s Theory of the Knowledge of God and the Word of God’. Ph.D. Thesis, Harvard University, 1950.

Karlberg, Mark W. ‘Covenant Theology and the Westminster Tradition’. WestminsterTheological Journal 54 (1992): 135-152.

— ‘Reformed Interpretation of the Mosaic Covenant’. Westminster Theological Journal 43 (1980): 1-57.

— ‘The Mosaic Covenant and the Concept of Works in Reformed Hermeneutics: A Historical-Critical Analysis with Particular Attention to Early Covenant Eschatology’. Ph.D. Diss. Westminster Theological Seminary, 1980.

Kendall, R. T. Calvin and English Calvinism to 1649. Oxford, 1979.

Kingdon, Robert M. Adultery and Divorce in Calvin’s Geneva. Vol. 118, Harvard Historical Studies. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 1995.

Klauber, Martin I. ‘Continuity and Discontinuity in Post-Reformation Reformed Theology: An Evaluation of the Muller Thesis’. Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 33 (1990): 467-75.

— ‘Between Protestant Orthodoxy and Rationalism: Fundamental Articles in the Early Career of Jean LeClerc’. The Journal of the History of Ideas 54 (1993): 611-36.

Lachman, David C. “The Marrow Controversy 1718-1723: An Historical and Theological Analysis,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of St. Andrews, 1979.

Lane, A.N.S. ‘Calvin’s Use of the Father’s and Medievals’. Calvin Theological Journal 16 (1981): 149-205.

–. ‘The Quest for the Historical Calvin’. The Evangelical Quarterly 55. (1983): 95-113.

— John Calvin: Student of the Church Fathers (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1999).

Leith, John H., ed. Calvin Studies 8: The Westminster Confession in Current Thought, Papers Presented at at the Colloquium on Calvin Studies. Davidson, NC, 1996.

Leithart, Peter J. ‘Stoic Elements in Calvin’s Doctrine of the Christian Life. Part I: Original Corruption, Natural Law, and the Order of the Soul’. Westminster Theological Journal. 55 (1993): 31-54.

— ‘Stoic Elements in Calvin’s Doctrine of the Christian Life. Part II. Mortification’. WestminsterTheological Journal. 55 (1993): 191-208.

— ‘Stoic Elements in Calvin’s Doctrine of the Christian Life. Part III. Christian Moderation’.Westminster Theological Journal. 56 (1994): 59-85.

— ‘That Eminent Pagan: Calvin’s Use of Cicero in Institutes 1.1.5’. Westminster TheologicalJournal. 52 (1990): 1-12.

Letham, Robert, W. ‘Amandus Polanus: A Neglected Theologian?’ The Sixteenth CenturyJournal. 21 (1990): 463-476.

— ‘The Foedus Operum: Some Factors Accounting For Its Development’. The SixteenthCentury Journal. 14 (1983): 457-467.

— ‘Theodore Beza: A Reassessment’. The Scottish Journal of Theology 40 (1987): 25-40.

Lillback, Peter A. ‘The Continuing Conundrum: Calvin and the Conditionality of the Covenant’.Calvin Theological Journal 29 (1994): 42-74.

— ‘Ursinus’ Development of the Covenant of Creation: A Debt to Melanchthon or Calvin?’Westminster Theological Journal. 43 (1981): 247-288.

— The Binding of God: Calvin’s Role in the Development of Covenant Theology (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2001).

Manetsch, Scott M. Theodore Beza and the Quest for Peace in France, 1572-1598. Edited by Heiko Oberman. Vol. 74, Studies in Medieval and Reformation Thought (Leiden, Boston, Koln: Brill, 2000).

McGiffert, Michael. ‘The Perkensian Moment of Federal Theology’. Calvin Theological Journal29 (1994): 117-48.

McGrath, Alister E. A Life of John CalvinA Study in the Shaping of Western Culture. Oxford, 1990.

McKim, Donald K. ed. Encyclopedia of the Reformed Faith. Louisville, 1992.

— ‘William Perkins and the Theology of the Covenant’. Studies of the Church in History. ed., Horton Davies. Allison Park, Pennsylvania, 1983.

McNeill, J.T. ‘The Church in Sixteenth Century Reformed Theology’. Journal of Religion 22 (1942): 251-69.

— The History and Character of Calvinism. Oxford, 1954.

Muller, Richard A. ‘Duplex Cognitio Dei in the Theology of Early Reformed Orthodoxy’.Sixteenth Century Journal 10 (1979): 51-61.

— ‘Fides and Cognitio in Relation to the Problem of Intellect and Will in the Theology of John Calvin’. Calvin Theological Journal 25 (1990): 207-224.

— ‘Perkins’ A Golden Chaine: Predestinarian System or Schematized Ordo Salutis?’ SixteenthCentury Journal 9 (1978): 69-81

— ‘Christ in the Eschaton: Calvin and Moltmann on the Duration of the Munus Regium‘,Harvard Theological Review 74 (1981): 31-59.

Muller, Richard A. God, Creation and Providence in the Thought of Jacob Arminius. Grand Rapids, 1991.

— The Unaccommodated Calvin: Studies in the Foundation of a Theological Tradition (Oxford: OUP, 2000).

— After Calvin: Studies in the Development of a Theological Tradition, Oxford Studies in Historical Theology (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).

Christ and the Decree: Christology and Predestination in Reformed Theology from Calvin to Perkins ( Grand Rapids, 1986).

Murray, John. ‘Calvin’s Doctrine of Creation’. Westminster Theological Journal 17 (1954): 21-43.

— Calvin on Scripture and Divine Sovereignty. Grand Rapids, 1960.

Naphy, William G. Calvin and the Consolidation of the Genevan Reformation. Manchester, 1994.

Neuser, Wilhelm H. ed. Calvinus Sacrae Scripturae. Grand Rapids, 1994.

— ‘Calvin’s Teaching on the Notae Fidelium: An Unnoticed Part of the Institutio 4.1.8′. trans. Mark S. Burrows. In Probing the Reformed TraditionHistorical Studies in Honor of Edward A.DoweyJr. Louisville, 1989.

Nicole, Roger. ‘The Doctrine of Definite Atonement in the Heidelberg Catechism’. GordonReview 3 (1964): 138-45.

— ‘John Calvin’s view of the Extent of the Atonement’, Westminster Theological Journal 47 (1985): 197-225.

Niesel, W. The Theology of Calvin. trans. Knight. Philadelphia, 1956.

Nijenhuis, Willem. ‘Calvin and the Augsburg Confession’, Ecclesia Reformata. Studies on the Reformation. trans. Mary Foran. Leiden, 1972.

— ‘Calvin’s “Subito Conversio”: Notes on a Hypothesis”, Ecclesia ReformataStudies on the Reformation. vol., 2. Leiden, 1994.

Nischan, Bodo. ‘”The Fractio Panis’: A Reformed Communion Practice in Late Reformation Germany’. Church History53 (1984): 1729.

Nugent, D. Ecumenism in the Age of the ReformationThe Colloquy of Poissy. Cambridge, Mass. 1974.

Oberman, H.A. ‘Initia Calvini: The Matrix of Calvin’s Reformation’. Calvinus Sacrae ScripturaeProfessor. ed. Wilhelm H. Neuser. Grand Rapids, 1994.

— ‘The “Extra” Dimension in the Theology of Calvin’ Journal of Ecclesiastical History 21 (1970): 43-64.

Packer, J.I. ‘Calvin the Theologian’. In John CalvinA Collection of Essays‘. Grand Rapids, 1966.

Parker, T.H.L. The Doctrine of the Knowledge of God. London, 1952.

— John Calvin: A Biography (Philadelpia:Westminster Press, 1975).

Partee, Charles. Calvin and Classical Philosophy. Leiden, 1977.

Peterson, Robert A. Calvin’s Doctrine of the Atonement. Phillipsburg, N.J., 1983.

Packer, J. I. The Redemption and Restoration of Man in the Thought of Richard Baxter: A Study in Puritan Theology, Studies in Evangelical History and Thought. Carlisle, UK: Paternoster, 2003.

Platt, John. Reformed Thought and Protestant Scholasticism. Leiden, 1982.

Porter, C.W. Reformation and Reaction in Tudor Cambridge. Cambridge, 1958.

Prestwich, Menna. ed. International Calvinism 15411715 (Oxford, 1985).

Raitt, Jill. ‘Three Inter-Related Principles in Calvin’s Unique Doctrine of Infant Baptism’.Sixteenth Century Journal. 11 (1980): 51-62.

— The Colloquy of MontbeliardReligion and Politics in the Sixteenth Century. Oxford, 1993.

— The Eucharistic Theology of Theodore Beza. Chambersburg, PA. 1972.

Rainbow, J. H. The Will of God and the Cross (Allison Park, PA, 1990).

Reid, W. Stanford, “Justification by Faith According to John Calvin,” Westminster Theological Journal 42 (1980): 290–307.

Schaefer, Paul. “The Spiritual Brotherhood on the Habits of the Heart: Cambridge Protestants and the Doctrine of Sanctification from William Perkins to Thomas Shepard.” DPhil. thesis. Oxford University, 1994.

Schnucker, R.V. CalvinianaThe Ideas and Influence of John Calvin. Kirksville, MO: Sixteenth Century Publishers, 1988.

— ed. CalvinianaIdeas and Influence of Jean Calvin (Kirksville, 1988).

Tamburello, D.E. Union with Christ (Louisville, 1994)

Trueman, C. R. and R. S. Clark, ed. Protestant Scholasticism: Essays in Reassessment. Carlisle, UK: Paternoster, 1999.

van Asselt, W. and Eef Dekker, ed., Reformation and Scholasticism: An Ecumenical Enterprise(Grand Rapids: Baker, 2001).

van Ruler, J.A. The Crisis of Causality: Voetius and Descartes on God, Nature and Change(Leiden: Brill, 1995).

van Stam, F. P., The Controversy over the Theology of Saumur, 1635-1650 Disrupting Debates Among the Huguenots in Complicated Circumstances (Amsterdam: Holland University Press, 1988).

von Rohr, John. The Covenant of Grace in Puritan Thought (Atlanta, 1986).

Cornelis P. Venema, “The Twofold Nature of the Gospel in Calvin’s Theology: The Duplex Gratia Dei and the Interpretation of Calvin’s Theology,” Ph.D. Diss. (Princeton: Princeton Theological Seminary, 1985).

Vos, G. ‘The Doctrine of the Covenant in Reformed Theology’. Redemptive History and BiblicalInterpretationThe Shorter Writings of Geerhardus Vos. trans. and ed. Richard B. Gaffin. Phillipsburg, 1980.

Wallace, Ronald S. Calvins Doctrine of Word and Sacrament. Edinburgh, 1953

Warfield, Benjamin B. Calvin and Calvinism. New York, 1931.

Weir, David A. The Origins of the Federal Theology in Sixteenth Century Reformation Thought. Oxford, 1990.

Wendel, Francois. CalvinOrigins and Development of His Religious Thought. trans. Philip Mairet. London, 1965.

Willis, David E. Calvins Catholic ChristologyThe Function of the SoCalled ExtraCalvinisticum in Calvins Theology. Leiden, 1966.

Zachman, Randall C. The Assurance of Faith in the Theology of Martin Luther and JohnCalvin. Philadelphia, 1993.

10. Zwingli and Zwinglian Studies

Baker, J. Wayne. Covenant and Community in the Thought of Heinrich Bullinger. Philadelphia, 1980.

Büsser, Fritz. ‘Bullinger and 1566’. Conflict and Conciliation: The Palatinate Reformation, 1559-1618. ed. Derk Visser. Pittsburgh, 1986.

Gordon, Bruce, and Emidio Campi, eds. Architect of Reformation: An Introduction to Heinrich Bullinger, 1504-1575. Edited by Richard A. Muller, Texts and Studies in Reformation and Post-Reformation Thought (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2004).

McCoy, Charles S. and J. Wayne Baker. Fountainhead of FederalismHeinrich Bullinger andthe Covenantal Tradition with a Translation of De Testamento seu Foedere Dei Unico etAeterno (1534). Louisville, 1991.

Stephens, W. P. The Theology of Huldrych Zwingli. Oxford, 1984.

Venema, Cornelis. ‘Heinrich Bullinger’s Correspondence on Calvin’s Doctrine of Predestination’. Sixteenth Century Journal. 17 (1986): 435-450.

Wesel-Roth, Ruth. Thomas Erastus. Lahr-Baden, 1954

11. Bucer

Martin Bucer, Basic Instruction in Christian Love, translated by P. T. Fuhrmann (Richmond: John Knox Press, 1952).

Eells, Hastings. Martin Bucer (New York: Russell and Russell, repr. 1971)

Joel Edward Kok, “The Influence of Martin Bucer on John Calvin’s Interpretation of Romans: A Comparative Case Study,” Ph. D. diss. (Duke University, 1993).

Greschat, Martin. Martin Bucer: A Reformer and His Times. Translated by Stephen E. Buckwalter. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2004.

Stephens, W.P. The Holy Spirit in the Theology of Martin Bucer (Cambridge, 1970).

Wright, D.F., ed., Common Places of Martin Bucer (Abingdon: Sutton Courtenay Press, 1971).

— ed., Martin Bucer: Reforming Church and Community (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).

12. Counter-Reformation

Bagchi, D.V.N. Luther’s Earliest Opponents (Phila: John Knox Press)

Dickens, A.G. The Counter Reformation. London, 1968.

Kidd, B.J. The Counter Reformation 15501600. London, 1933.

Schroeder, H.J. ed. The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent (Rockford, 1978)

13. Anabaptists and Radicals

Littell, Franklin H. The Origins of Sectarian Protestantism (New York, 1964).

Williams, G. H. The Radical Reformation (Phila., 1962; rev. repr. Kirksville, 1994)

Simons, Menno. The Complete Writings of Menno Simons (C. 1496-1561). Translated by Leonard Verduin. Edited by John Christian Wenger. Scottsdale, PA: Herald Press, 1956.

14. Cranmer

MacCulloch, D. Thoomas Cranmer: A Life (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1996).
State of the art.

Ayris, P., D. Selwyn, Thomas Cranmer: Churchman and Scholar (London: Boydell and Brewer, 1999).

Ridley, J., Thomas Cranmer (Oxford: OUP, 1962),
The older, standard work.

G. Bromiley, Thomas Cranmer Theologian (New York:OUP, 1956).
Brief.

Brooks, Peter Newman, Cranmer in Context (Cambridge: CUP, 1989).

15. Knox

MacGregor, G. The Thundering Scot: A Portrait of John Knox (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1957).

Ridley, J., Knox (Oxford: OUP, 1968).

Sefton, Jinkins, Torrance, John Knox (1993)

Reid, W. S. Trumpeter of God: a Biography of John Knox (New York: Scribner, 1974).

A Brief Glossary Of The Medieval And Reformation Church

©2011 R. Scott Clark. All Rights Reserved.
Revised 2007, 2011.

A

Abelard, Peter (1079-1142). Author of Sic et Non, an influential scholastic collection of apparently contradictory excerpts from the Fathers and Scripture. The Protestants used Abelard as a symbol of all that was wrong with medieval theology.

Act of Supremacy (1534) Made the King of England ‘the only supreme head of the Church in earth of the Church of England. Repealed by Mary Tudor and restored by Elizabeth I (1559). The act gave the monarch temporal authority over the church and the appointment of her officers.

Act of Uniformity (1549, 1552, 1559, 1662). 1) Imposed, in 1549, exclusive use of the First Book of Common Prayer and English in worship; 2) In 1552, following the Second Book of Common Prayer; 3) In 1559, following Elizabeth’s accession ordering the use of the 1552 edition and some earlier forms of worship; 4)Part of the restoration settlement and institution of the 1662 revision of the BCP.

Adiaphora (Lit. “matters of moral indifference”) Beliefs or practices which the 16th century reformers regarded as being tolerable, in that they were not contrary to Scripture. Of course, various theologians had different conceptions of what was indifferent. The adiaphorist controversy broke out after the Leipzig Interim (1548) when Melanchthon and his followers had compromised with Roman Catholic civil authorities and declared confirmation, the Mass (without transubstantiation), extreme unction and veneration of the saints to be indifferent. The Melanchthonians were attacked by the Gnesio (i.e., genuine) Lutheran M. Flaccius who saw these concessions as destructive of Protestantism. The controversy continued until the adoption of the Formula of Concord (1577).

Albertus Magnus (c.1200-1280). He matriculated at Padua where he entered the Dominicans in 1223. 1241-45 held the Dominican chair in the University of Paris. Was followed to Cologne by Thomas Aquinas. Gained fame defending the Aristotelian synthesis against the Muslim Averroes.

Alcuin (c.740-804) Theologian and scholar of the arts (he wrote on topics in the trivium and the quadrivium) he was major intelletual figure of the Carolingian Renaissance. He wrote on the Trinity, opposing adoptionism. With Boethius, Alcuin helped keep alive classical learning and transmit it to the Latin church.

Alexander VI (1431-1503) Pope from 1492. Rodrigo Borgia, a thoroughly corrupt and debauched person, whose election to the Papacy was secured through bribery. He prosecuted and murdered the reformer Savanarola and sought to assure the election of his son Caesare to the papacy!

Alexandrian School, noted for its Christology which placed emphasis upon the divinity of Christ and its method of biblical interpretation (which employed allegorical methods of exegesis). A rival approach in both areas was associated with Antioch.

Ames, William (1576-1633). English Reformed theologian, student of William Perkins, who spent most of his academic career in the Netherlands. His Marrow of Theology (1627) is a clear and powerful statement of early Puritan theology.

Amyraut, Moise (1596-1664) French pastor and theologian in the Academy of Saumur. HisBrief Treatise of Predestination (1634) caused a great deal of controversy. He argued that Christ’s death was hypothetically universal in intention. His defenders argued that the faith necessary for the appropriation of Christ’s death was itself a gift. His critics saw echoes of Arminius. Amyraut’s claim to be the true heir of Calvin’s theology (over against Beza) has been widely accepted, though not without challenge.

Anabaptism a term derived from the Greek word for re-baptizer and used to refer to parts of the radical wing of the Reformation. Among its major figures were relatively mild preachers such as Menno Simons and Balthasar Hubmair as well as more explosive personalities such as Thomas Müntzer, the Zwickau Prophets and events such as the Munster Rebellion.

Analogy of Being (analogia entis) The theory, especially associated with Thomas Aquinas, that there exists a correspondence or analogy between the created order and God, as a result of the divine creatorship. The idea gives theoretical justification to the practice of drawing conclusions about God on the basis of known objects and relations in the natural order.

Andrae, Jacob (1528-90) Lutheran theologian and controversialist. He participated in numerous colloquia, particularly with Reformed theologians. He defended Luther’s doctrine of the supper and attacked the Calvinist doctrine of Spiritual presence in the Eucharist and predestination. He is one of the chief authors of the Formula of Concord (1563) and editors of the Book of Concord (1580). With Brenz, Chemnitz, and Chrytaeus he led the Gnesio-Lutheran movement.

Anselm of Canterbury (c.1033-1109). Author of the Monologion, Proslogion, and Cur Deus homo. Archbishop of Canterbury. Declared Doctor Ecclesiae in 1720 by Clement XI. Anselm’s work was formative for the program of scholasticism. Credo ut intelligamFides quaerens intellectum.

Anti-Pelagian Writings Augustine’s writings relation to the Pelagian controversy in which he developed and defended his views on grace, predestination and justification.

Antiochene school A patristic school of thought, especially associated with the city of Antioch in modern-day Turkey, noted for its Christology (which placed emphasis upon the humanity of Christ) and its method of biblical interpretation (which employed literal methods of exegesis). A rival approach in both areas was associated with Alexandria.

Apophatic A term used to refer to a particular style of theology, which stressed that God cannot be known in terms of human categories. Apophatic (which derives from the Greek apophasis, “negation” or “denial”) approaches to theology are especially associated with the monastic tradition of the Eastern Orthodox church.

Apostles’ Creed No one believes that the Apostles’ Creed was actually written by the Apostles themselves. It is the fruit of about three centuries of Christian reflection on essential Christian beliefs, and for most Western Christians, an authoritative summary of the essentials of the Apostolic faith. It is probably related to the Old Roman baptismal creed which can be dated to the late third century. The title Apostles’ Creed was first used c.390 because some Latin fathers (e.g., Ambrose) believed that the Apostles actually wrote it. This belief persisted until the Reformation. The Creed is found in its present form in an 8c document. The Reformation era marked a resurgence in interest in the Creed. Many Protestants wrote commentaries on the Creed and structured their theology around it. Because of its terseness and antiquity it has become in the 20c a vehicle for ecumenicity.

Aquinas, Thomas (c.1224-74) Student of Albertus Magnus. A serious student of Aristotle in University, he joined the Dominican order in 1242/43. He arrived in Paris sometime in the 1250s. He taught in Paris and Rome among other places. In December of 1273 something happened that brought his writing career to an end. He died in Cistercian Abbey south of Rome. His two greatest works were the Summa contra gentiles and Summa theologiae. The latter, unfinished, became the basis for Roman theology in response to the Reformation. The former is his defense of the faith. Thomas was an intllectualist who, though positing an analogy of being, was not consistently an analogical theologian. For Thomas, from empirical obsersations we deduce universals by which the active intellect intersects with the divine intellect. Though usually described as an “Aristotelian,” his theology is inexplicable without understanding his debt to neo-Platonism. A strong predestinarian theologian, he also downplayed the effects of sin. For Thomas, nature is inherently defective and requires grace, as a result of creation, to perfect it (gratia naturam non tollit, sed perfecit). In this way the fall was from grace. Salvation after the fall is the result of grace and cooperation with grace. Grace creates in us a disposition (habitus) toward cooperation with grace but our cooperation is essential toward becoming justifiable. Hence, the same merit can be considered, from the divine perspective, as condign and from the human side, congruent. Salvation is partaking of the divine nature.

Aristotle (384-322 B.C.). In the 12c the main works of Aristotle appeared in Latin translation. In the 13c commentaries by Avicenna and Averroes appeared. Some were led away from catholic truth. Thus the need to harmonize Augustine and Aristotle. This is the calling of the Dominicans (aka Friars and Black Friars).

Arius (c.250-336) an Alexandrian presbyter who regarded Jesus Christ as the supreme of God’s creatures (thus denying his divinity), whose slogan was: ‘There was when the Son was not.’ He denied the consubstantiality of the Son ‘of like substance.’ Arianism was a major early Christological and anti-Trinitarian heresy stimulating the Nicene Creed (325 and 381 AD) and orthodox Christology.

Arminius, Jacobus [Jakob Hermandszoon] (1560-1609). Dutch Reformed theologian in Leiden and pastor. A one-time student of Theodore Beza in the Genevan Academy, he rejected Calvinism in favor of a sort of synthesis of Calvinism with semi-Pelagianism. Attempted to refute William Perkins’ on predestination and to revise the Heidelberg Catechismand the Belgic Confession. The Synod of Dort was convened to address his followers.

Articles of Religion (1553-1563). Built upon the Henrician Ten Articles (1536), Bishop’s Book(1537), King’s Book (1543) and first formulated in Forty-Two articles by Thomas Cranmer under the Calvinist King Edward VI. Because of the accession of the Roman Catholic Mary Tudor they were probably never enforced. In 1563, after the accession of Elizabeth I, they were revised to form the Thirty Nine Articles.

Articulus cadentis et stantis ecclesiae: Justification is the article [of faith] by which the church stands or falls. Attributed to J. H. Alsted (1588-1638).

Athanasian Creed formulated primarily to teach the doctrines of the Trinity and the Incarnation. Its date is uncertain, sometime in the period 381-428. It rejected those who deny the full deity of Jesus and his consubstantiality with the Father, ‘Neither confounding the persons, nor dividing the Substance’.

Atonement A term originally coined by William Tyndale to translate the Latin termreconciliatio, which has since come to have the developed meaning of “the work of Christ” or “the benefits of Christ gained for believers by his death and resurrection.”

Augsburg, Diet of (1530). Convened to consider, among other things the Lutheran Confession of faith Confessio Augustana as presented by Melanchthon.

Augsburg, Confession of: (1530) The Most significant of all Lutheran Confessional documents. The Augsburg was, however, signed by Calvin and other Reformed Protestants as well. First presented to Charles V at the Imperial Reichstag and published in 1530, the Augsburg was revised by its author Philip Melanchthon, most notably in 1540 in an edition known as the Augustana Variata.

AugsburgInterim of, (1548) The doctrinal formula drafted by two Roman Catholic Bishops and one Protestant theologian, to serve as the basis of a peace between Roman Catholics and Protestants in the Holy Roman (German) Empire. The interim was generally a failure was supplanted by the Leipzig Interim in the North and finally by the Peace in 1555.

Augsburg, Peace of (1555) The settlement between the Lutheran electors and the Roman Catholic (German) emperor Ferdinand I (22 September). The Pax Augustana was built on the principle, cuius regio, eius religio (whose the rule, his the religion). Those Lutheran territories would be fixed as Lutheran and the Roman Catholic termites likewise. The peace, unfortunately, did not accommodate the Calvinists which omission would not be corrected until after the Thirty Years war with the Treaty of Westaphalia (1648). Until then, Calvinists were forced to find refuge behind the Augsburg Confession.

Augustine (354-430) Bishop of Hippo (North Africa) and the Western Church’s greatest theologian. Taught that believers are elected to justification but that election is effected through divine grace through the grace available through the Church.

Augustinianism A term used in two major senses. First, it refers to the views of Augustine of Hippo concerning the doctrine of salvation, in which the need for divine grace is stressed. In this sense, the term is the antithesis of Pelagianism. Second, it is used to refer to the body of opinion within the Augustinian order during the Middle Ages, irrespective of whether these views derive from Augustine or not.

Auto de fe (Spanish) or auto da fe (Portugese) Lit. “act of faith.” Refers to public penance followed by the torture and execution of the death penalty for heretics by the Spanish inquisition. The first auto de fe was in 1481 in Seville and the last in 1826.

B

Barnes, Robert (1495-1540) Protestant Reformer and martyr. One of those who was said to gather at the Whitehorse Inn to discuss Protestant theology. Imprisoned, he escaped and fled to Germany because of his theology (1526), he later returned to serve as a mediator between Luther and Henry VIII. He was beheaded.

Belgic Confession (1561) A Reformed confession composed primarily by Guido de Bres. Adopted by most of the continental Reformed Churches.

Bellarmine, Robert (1542-1621) Italian Roman Catholic Counter-Reformation apologist, scholar, theologian, and member of the Society of Jesus. Bellarmine is most famous for his three volume (1586-93) controversial defense of Tridentine Roman Catholic theology against Protestant criticisms.

Berengar (c.1010-88 ). Like Ratramnus, again attacked transubstantiation (i.e., that the elements of the supper become the body of Christ). He argued for a sort of Spiritual presence of Christ, and that only believers receive Christ in the Supper. He was opposed by Leo IX in 1050 and by Gregory VII in 1078-9 and later by the Bishop of Canterbury, Lanfranc (d.c.1089) who defended transubstantiation. His response to Lanfranc, Rescriptum contra Lanfrancum is his only remaining work

Bede (c.672-735) Historian, theologian and teacher, the Bede was the foremost scholar and influential Christian leader in Anglo-Saxon England. In his early career he wrote on orthography, meter, and nature. He commented extensively on Scripture. He is most famous for his History of the English People, which is still a source for the period.

Beza, Theodore (1519-1605) French Calvinist scholar, theologian, apologist and consolidator of the Reformation. A trained in French legal humanism Beza had wide ranging interests. He was a pioneering scholar of the Greek New Testament (Codex Bezae) and Bible translator. His On the Right of Magistrates was an early formulation Protestant resistance theory. His impact on the development of international Calvinism can hardly be overestimated.

Blaurock, George (c.1492-1529) Anabaptist evangelist. He apparently initiated the practice of exclusive believer’s baptism in Zürich and founded a congregation about 1525. Exiled two years later he became an itinerant preacher in Central Europe planting Anabaptist congregations. He was burnt by Charles V for heresy.

Bodenstein, Andreas (see Karlstadt)

Boethius (c.480-c.524) Roman consul, Christian philosopher and theologian. One of the most significant transmitters of ancient learning to the Latin church, he translated some of the works of Aristotle adapted the trivium (grammar, logic and rhetoric) and the quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, music, astronomy) for the West. Caught up in political intrigue, he died in prison. Strongly Trinitarian in his theology, Boethius established the definition of “person” with which the Medieval and Reformation churches worked, “the individual substance of a rational nature.” His definition of eternity also became standard: “The simultaneous and perfect possession of limitless life.” He wrestled with the questions of the “one” and the “many,” the relation of “being” to “existence,” and the relations of providence to human freedom. His most famous work is On the Consolation of Philosophy but also composed lesser known theological tracts which are in the Loeb Classical Library.

Bolsec, Jerome (†1585) A Protestant convert most famous for controverting with Calvin over predestination. Forced to leave Geneva, he eventually returned to Rome. Before he died he wrote slanderous biographies of Calvin and Beza.

Boniface (c.672-754) Born at Wessex, he is most famous for his mission to the Germans, and for his multiple missionary expeditions to the Friesians. Having laid the foundations of the German church and serving as the Abp of Mainz, he returned to Friesland for a final mission where he was matyred.

Book of Common Prayer (1549, 1552, 1559, 1662) The office service book of the Anglican Communion. Originally complied by Thomas Cranmer, the BCP attempted to revise and anglicise the medieval Latin rite. The first two editions were composed under the Calvinist King Edward VI. The Elizabethan edition omitted the ‘Black Rubric’ (an explanation that kneeling at communion is not an act of veneration of the host) was restored in the 1662 edition as a concession to the Puritans.

Book of Homilies (1547). Collection of Protestant sermons written by Cranmer, Bucer, Peter Martyr Vermigli intended for use by English clergy who were not themselves able to write Protestant sermons.

Book of Sports (1617-8) Written by James I in which authorized recreational sport on the Sabbath against Puritan sentiment. Later, Abp Laud forced it on many unwilling Puritan pastors.

Brenz, Johannes (1499-1570) German Lutheran Reformer. Most notable for his stout defense of Luther’s doctrine of the Eucharist.

Brethren of the Common Life were founded by Gert de Groot in the 14c as an association to foster a greater devotion to Christ and to advance moral reform in the Church. Thomas a’ Kempis (c.1380-1471), Pope Hadrian VI (1459-1523), the theologian Gabriel Biel (c.1420-95), the mystic Nicholas of Cusa (1401-64) were associated with the Brethren. The movement also influenced the development of the Renaissance through the humanists Rudolph Agricola (1443-85) and D. Erasmus (c.1469-1536)

Bruce, Robert (c.1554-1631) Popular Scots Presbyterian preacher who powerfully opposed the restoration of Episcopacy to Scotland.

Bucer, Martin (1491-1551). German Protestant scholar, theologian and apologist for the Reformation. Bucer is associated most strongly with the Swiss Reformation in Basle and Strasbourg. Having begun his Protestant preaching by 1523, Bucer belongs to the first stage of the Reformation. He probably represents a bridge the essentials of the Luther’s theology and the developments of the Reformation in the Swiss Reformation. Calvin was influenced by Bucer. With Melanchthon, he was among the more conciliatory Protestants.

Buchanan, George (1506-1582) Scots Calvinist scholar, an outstanding humanist scholar, he tutored both Mary Queen of Scots and James VI.

Bull. From the Latin term bulla or ‘seal’. A written papal mandate on some important theological or ecclesiastical matter. Early bulls were sealed with the papal signet ring.

Bullinger, Heinrich (1504-75). Swiss Protestant. He belongs to the second (consolidation) stage of the Reformation. Like all the Protestants, he accepted Luther’s fundamental principles and, with Zwingli, Bucer and Calvin, sought to develop the doctrine of the Christian life. He is important to the development of covenant theology and the progress of the English Reformation from its Lutheran to its Reformed stage.

C

Calvin, John (1509-64). French Protestant and the second most outstanding figure in the Reformation after Martin Luther. Born in Noyon, he spent his youth training for a career in the Roman Church. He was educated in French Legal Humanism in University in Orleans, Paris and Bourges. He became a Protestant sometime in the late 1520’s or early 1530’s. Associated most strongly with Geneva, he was scholar turned pastor. He wrote voluminously, taught daily through the Bible and preached from the NT each Lord’s Day. His greatest theological work is his Institutes of the Christian Religion which he revised several times from 1536-59. His contribution to Protestant theology was to link Luther’s doctrine of justification to a more developed doctrine of sanctification framed by a thoroughly Trinitarian understanding of creation and redemption.

Cameron, John (1579-1625) Scottish theologian who influenced the French Reformed Church. Most of his career was spent in France. It was from Cameron that Amyraut got his controversial theory of the atonement.

Canisius, Peter (1521-97). The outstanding German, Jesuit, Counter-Reformation, theologian of the 16c. His catechism (Summa Doctrinae Christianae) has gone through 130 editions.

Canons of Dort (1619). Five articles drafted and adopted by an international Reformed Synod convened at Dordtrecht by the Dutch Reformed Church in response to the five points of the Remonstrant (Arminian) theologians.

Cappadocian fathers A term used to refer collectively to three major Greek-speaking writers of the patristic period: Basil of Caesarea, Gregory of Nazianzen, and Gregory of Nyssa, all of whom date from the late fourth century. “Cappadocia” designates an area in Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey), in which these writers were based.

Capito, Wolfgang (1478-1541). German, early Protestant reformer of Strasbourg before Martin Bucer. Originally associated with Erasmus attempts at the moral reform of the church, he later moved to a position closer to Luther’s. He was one of the author’s of the Swiss Tetrapolitan Confession.

Cartrwright, Thomas (c.1535-1603) English Calvinist theologian, student of Beza, who strongly advocated Presbyterian church polity, though he did not separate from the Church of England. He served as a conduit for Continental Calvinism to England.

Catechism A popular manual of Christian doctrine, usually in the form of question and answer, intended for religious instruction.

Chalcedonian definition (451) The formal declaration at the Council of Chalcedon that the two natures of Christ are neither to be separated (Nestorianism) nor to be confounded (Eutychianism). Both Lutheran and Reformed (including Calvin and Zwingli) Christologies should be regarded as falling within the pale of Chalcedon.

Chemnitz, Martin (1522-86). A Lutheran theologian and consolidator of the GnesioLutheranmovement and controversialist against Rome. He defended Luther’s doctrine of ubiquity. Chemnitz is one of the primary authors of the Magdeburg Centuries, a polemic church history justifying the Reformation. He also wrote an influential critique of the Council of Trent (Examen concilii Tridentini, 1565).

Christology The locus of Christian theology dealing with the identity, person, and work of Jesus Christ, and particularly the relation of his human and divine natures.

Colloquy: (From the Latin colloquium) A formal theological debate (usually ecclesiastical rather than academic).

Conciliarism. A movement which grew out of Ockham’s critique of Pope John XXII. An attempt to decentralise ecclesiastical authority to the General council and maintain the indefectability of the Holy Catholic Church. The Council of Constance successfully ended the schism but also thus damaged conciliarism. Pius II issued the bull Execrabalis forbidding appeals to Councils (1460).

Concord, Formula of/Book of Concord (1577-80). The Formula Concordiae and the Liber Concordiae were the definitive Gnesio-Lutheran confessional documents of the consolidation written by Jakob Andrae (1528-90), Martin Chemnitz, Nikolaus Selnecker (1530–92). The Book of Concord positioned itself between Philip Melanchthon and Calvin on the one side and Rome on the other. These documents helped to consolidate Gnesio-Lutheran theological and political reaction.

Confession Although the term refers primarily to the admission of sin, it acquired a rather different technical sense in the sixteenth century -that of a document which embodies the principles of faith of a Protestant church. Thus the Augsburg Confession (1530) embodies the ideas of early Lutheranism, and the First Helvetic Confession (1536) those of the early Reformed church. The term “Confessionalism” is often used to refer to the consolidation of the Reformation, in the later sixteenth century, as the Lutheran and Reformed churches became involved in a struggle for power, especially in Germany. The term “Confessional” is often used to refer to a church which defines itself with reference to such a document. Confessions (which define denominations) should be distinguished from creeds (which transcend denominational boundaries).

Consensus Tigurinus (1549). This is the Zürich Agreement on the Lord’s Supper (Eucharist) reached by Heinrich Bullinger representing German speaking Swiss Protestants and John Calvin and G. Farel representing the French speaking Protestants.

Constance, Council of (1414-7) Called by Pope John XXIII to end the schism created by the Avignon Papacy. It also condemned early Reformers Hus and Wycliffe.

Consubstantiation A term used to refer to the theory of the real presence, especially associated with Martin Luther, which holds that the substance of the eucharistic bread and wine are given together with the substance of the body and blood of Christ.

Contarini, Gasparo Cardinal (1483-1542). Well born in Venice, Italy, he educated in Renaissance humanism in University in Padua. He served as an ambassador for Venice to Charles V. He gained fame as a theologian by defending the immortality of the soul and by critiquing Luther’s theology. Created Cardinal in 1535 by Paul III, he helped prepare the way for the Council of Trent, which he attended. He took something of a conciliatory position first at Ratisbon/Regensburg (Epistola de iustificatione) in a dialogue with Melanchthon and Bucer and later at Trent.

Copernicus, Nicolas (1473-1543) the father of modern astronomy. A student in the University of Crakow and in the University of Bologna, he began lecturing on mathematics and astronomy in Rome. Returning to Prussia, he formulated his theories, rejecting the Polemic-Geocentric universe. He published his theory in 1531 which was rejected by Pope Clement VII. His treatise On the Revolutions of the Celestial Orbs (1543) published just before his death contained a forward by the Protestant theologian Andreas Osiander warning that the views contained were only hypothetical. Other Protestant theologians, such as Calvin, were ambivalent. De revolutionibus was on the Roman Index (List) of banned books 1616-1757.

Council of Trent: (1545-63) Promulgated the official Roman Catholic response to and anathema against the Protestant Reformation. Vatican Council I (1869-70) solidified this response by adding the doctrine of Papal infallibility. Vatican Council II (1962-5), however, appears to move back from Trent and Vatican I by describing Protestants as ‘separated brethren’.

Covenant Theology A thread of biblical revelation and present seminally in Patristic theology, it was reformed by Martin Luther and developed by Johannes Oecolampadius and H. Zwingli in the early stages of the Reformation and later developed by Bullinger, Calvin, Ursinus, and Olevian in the 16th century. Throughout the 17th century, it was an important instrument used by the Reformed to protect Protestantism from Amyrauldianism and Arminianism. The development of covenant or federal theology was inhibited in the later 17th century and through much of the 18th century by the challenge presented by Englightenment rationalism as theologians were forced to focus on prolegomena. This 20th century has seen something of a revival of interest in both in neo-orthodox (Barthian) annd orthodox (confessional) covenant theology. The classic forms of covenant/federal theology held chiefly that there are two covenants. First a covenant of works made by God with Adam before the fall in which Adam, and all humanity in him, was promised eternal blessedness upon successful fulfillment of the terms of this ante-lapsarian probationary covenant—not to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Adam having failed, God made a promissory covenant of grace to send a redeemer. Following Paul in Romans 5, Christ was said to be the Second Adam who by his obedience, suffering and death has secured redemption for his sheep, which is imputed to the elect and the benefits of which are received through faith alone. In this view all of Sacred Scripture is united by the common thread of salvation by grace alone, through faith alone, in Christ alone. Salvation and sanctification are conceived in covenantal terms. Reformed theology used the vehicle of covenant (or federal theology) to express its Protestantism and its more highly developed Trinitarianism— that is, salvation is Christocentric, but not Christomonist, and is fully the work of the entire Trinity. The covenant also incorporated a more highly developed doctrine of sanctification—that is, a life of holiness lived in gratitude to and for the glory of God is a necessary product of God’s gracious salvation, without becoming an instrument of justification or becoming confused with sanctification.

Coverdale, Miles (1488-1568). English Protestant Bible translator (Zürich, 1535) and leader of Puritanism. Three years later he made another translation of the Vulgate New Testament into English known as ‘The Great Bible’.

Cranach, Lucas [the elder] (1472-1553) German painter associated with Lutheran reformation. Painted and produced woodcuts of several reformation leaders.

Cranmer, Thomas (1489-1556) Archbishop of Canterbury. Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge. Served Henry VIII by legitimizing his divorce from Catherine of Arragon in 1529 thus helping to precipitate the break of the English Church from Rome. He was also the principal author of the Book of Common Prayer 1549-52. Wrote many of the sermons included in the book of homilies used by Protestant clergy. Martyred under bloody Mary Tudor at Oxford, 21 March 1556.

Creed A formal definition or summary of the Christian faith, held in common by all Christians. The most important are those generally known as the “Apostles’ creed” and the “Nicene creed.”

D

d’Etaples, Jacques LeFevre [Faber Stapulensis] (1455-1536) French humanist scholar and commentator on Scripture. His method of interpretation influenced the next generation of French Protestants such as Farel and Calvin.

Daneau, Lambert (1530-1595) French Reformed theologian. A student of Calvin, he taught in the Genevan Academy with Beza. He is notable for his publications on ethics as distinct category of Protestant theology. He is an important figure in the development of Protestant orthodoxy.

de Bres, Guido (c.1522-1567) Principal author of the oldest confession of the Continental Reformed Churches, the Belgic Confession (1561). Martyred under Spanish oppression.

Deism A term used to refer to the views of a group of English writers, especially during the seventeenth century, the rationalism of which anticipated many of the ideas of the Enlightenment. The term is often used to refer to a view of God which recognizes the divine creatorship, yet which rejects the notion of a continuing divine involvement with the world.

Denk, Hans (c.1500-27) Leader of the Anabaptist Swiss Brethren. Died of the plague.

Dialectic. Greek word which describes a form of reasoning which shows the “mutually contradictory character” of two principles

Diet (German, Reichstag) a meeting of the German Imperial Senate convened by the Emperor and constituted by the seven Electors of the German (Roman) Empire, three of which were clerical and four of which were secular.

Docetism An early Christological heresy, which treated Jesus Christ as a purely divine being who only had the “appearance” of being human.

Dogma Gk. The term and cognates occurs six times in the NT. Luke 2.1 refers to Caesar’s ‘decree’ on the census and Acts 17.7 to the ‘decree’ that there is no god but Caesar. Ephesians 2.15 and Colossians 2.14 refer to Mosaic ‘ordinances’. Colossians 2.14 uses a verbal form to describe man-made judaizing regulations. None of them refers to ‘dogmatic theology’ proper. Its usage in Acts 16.4 which refers to the ‘decrees’ handed down by the Apostles at the Synod in Jerusalem, does furnish some basis for its usage in connection with ecclesiastical theological decisions. It is usually used as a synonym for theology and sometimes distinguished from it as that doctrine which has ecclesiatical approval.

Donatism A movement, centering upon Roman North Africa in the fourth century, which developed a rigorist view of the church and sacraments.

Double Justice/justification (duplex iustitia): The doctrine of justification (at least) implied in Article V of the Colloquy of Regensburg. The doctrine of double justification attempts to synthesize the Roman position with the Protestant position by teaching that righteousness is both imputed to and infused in the sinner. This position was rejected both by Trent and by most Protestants.

Dun Scotus (c.1265-1308). Doctor Subtilis or Doctor Marianus was one of Thomas’ most vigorous critics. Scotus was a Franciscan voluntarist. Where Thomas and the realists (Dominicans) emphasized the divine (and human) intellect, he emphasized against emphasized the primacy of the divine will and love. The beatific vision is of souls consumed by love for God. Denied with Thomas, the idea of innate ideas and agreed, with Thomas, that reason and revelation are compatible.

E

Eclesiology The doctrine of the Church.

Eck, Johannes (1486-1543) German, Roman Catholic theologian, professor at Ingolstadt, and critic of the Lutheran Reformation. He opposed Luther and Carlstadt at the Leipzig Disputation (1519). In the next year helped secure Luther’s excommunication and in 1530 attacked the Augsburg Confession.

Eckhart, Meister (c.1260-c.1328). German theologian and Dominican monk. A student of Albertus Magnus at Cologne, where he also taught. He later served as a prior and vicar in Eurfurt and Thuringuria and Saxony. He also taught in Paris, Cologne and Strasbourg. He was a pioneer of vernacular preaching. His extreme (pantheizing) mysticism earned him a trial before the Apb of Cologne. His 28 Propositions were condemned by John XXII in 1329.

Edict of Nantes (1598) signed by Henry IV of France to end the French Wars of Religion and securing tolerance for French Protestants.

Edward VI (1537-53) Calvinist boy-King of England, son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour. He was a bright boy, avid reader, committed to Reformed theology. His tutors were self-consciously Protestant. Under Edward the Church of England moved in a Calvinist direction. The book of homilies was published (1547). Among the changes he made to English worship: provided a copy of the Great Bible, condemned pictures, enforced the reading of the Gospel and the Epistle in English, in morning worship, enjoined communion in two kinds, removed altars in favor of wooden communion tables and, most importantly, sponsored the Book of Common Prayer, the Forty-Two Articles and the Catechism.

Elizabeth I (1533-1603) Queen of England from 1558 to her death and the daughter Anne Boleyn, succeeded Edward VI and Mary Tudor by act of Parliament. Unlike her two predecessors, Elizabeth, like her father, was primarily concerned about consolidating power and enforcing uniformity on a Kingdom divided badly by steering a middle way between Calvinism and Roman Catholicism. With her accession many of the Marian exiles (mostly Puritans) returned to England, though Puritans of the ‘hotter sort’ would not finder her reign terribly hospitable. Elizabethan religion was mildly Protestant. She ordered the Second Edwardian Prayer Book (1552) to be edited (so as to remove offense to Roman Catholics) and reissued in 1559. The Articles of Religion were reduced to 39. She was excommunicated by Pope Pius V in 1570.

Erasmus, Desiderius (c.1469-1536) Dutch humanist scholar, theologian and advocate ofPhilosophia Christiana (the Devotio Moderna – the imitatio Christi).Taught at Paris, Oxford and Cambridge. Controverted with Luther over the freedom of the will. A Loyal son of Rome, he advocated moral, not theological reform of the church. Edited the first and most important (though not the most accurate) early critical edition of the New Testament.

Erastus, Thomas(1524-83). Swiss-German physician and lay theologian. Influenced by Zwinglian theologians, he opposed the imposition of Calvinist church order in Heidelberg. The view that church is a creature of the state took its name from Erastus. His work on church and state was published posthumously in England and translated in the middle of the 17c. WCF Articles 23.3 and 31 were mildly Erastian.

Eschatology The locus of Christian theology dealing with the “last things,” especially the ideas of resurrection, hell, and eternal life.

Eucharist The term used in to refer to the sacrament variously known as “the mass,” “the Lord’s supper,” and “holy communion.”

Eutyches (c.378-454), Turkish monk who opposed Nestorius so strongly that he was accused to confounding the two natures of Christ. He taught that there were two natures before the incarnation before and only one nature after the incarnation. He was deposed and later restored and deposed again at the Council of Chalcedon in 451.

Evangelical A term initially used to refer to the Protestant movement through the 1550’s. It was often used synonymously with the term Reformed in a generic sense. After the 1550’s the term was increasingly replaced by the term Protestant.

Exsurge Domine. The papal bull issued by Pope Leo X on 15 June 1520 excommunicating Martin Luther in 41 propositions. Luther appealed on 17 November and publicly burned it in Wittenberg on 10 December.

F

Facientibus quod in se est, Deus non denegat gratiam also facere quod in se est…(“to those who do what is in them,” or “to him who does what is in him…” “God does not deny grace”: A medieval approach to justification particularly associated with the Franciscan school of theology (via moderna) including semi-Pelagians such as Ockham and later Gabriel Biel.

Farel, William (1489-1565) French Reformer of Geneva and other French-Swiss cantons. Like Calvin, he was influenced by Jacques LeFevre d’Etaples in Paris. He first became associated with the Reformation in Basle. In 1535, with Peter Viret, he led the initial stages of the Reformation of Geneva. He is most famous for the ‘dreadful imprecation’ by which, in 1536, he compelled Calvin to remain in Geneva.

Five Ways, the A standard term for the five “arguments for the existence of God” especially associated with Thomas Aquinas.

Flaccius, Matthias Illyricus (1520-75) An outstanding Gnesio (genuine) Lutheran theologian. Read Protestant theology in Basel and Tübingen. From 1541 he was a colleague of Melanchthon and Luther in Wittenberg and was appointed Professor of Hebrew in 1544. As a Gnesio-Lutheran he opposed the Augsburg Interim and was a critic of Melanchthon on several issues. He joined the Jena faculty in 1557 as Prof. of N.T. He was one of the major combatants in the Majorist controversy in 1561-2. After conflict with the faculty in Jena he failed in an attempt to found his own school in 1562. He was a major contributor to theMagedeburg Centuries, a monumental 13 vol. Protestant polemical history justifying the reformation.

Forensic: synonym for ‘legal’.

Foxe (1517-87) Author of Foxe’s Book of Martyrs, a leading early English historian of the Reformation. The first edition was published in 1563 and was revised thereafter and republished countless times. A Marian exile to the English congregation in Frankfort, where he sided with the Calvinist party, his identification of Protestant ‘martyrs’ with the martyrs of the early church was a powerful rhetorical move which strongly influenced for three centuries the way the Reformation story was told.

Francis I (reigned 1515-47) Roman Catholic king of France. Staunchly opposed the introduction of the Reformation into France by forbidding the publication of Luther’s works (1521). Nevertheless, Protestantism made its way into France. Calvin appealed to Francis, in his epistle dedicatory to the Institutes of the Christian Religion, for religious toleration of French Protestants.

Frederick (III) the Wise (1463-1525). Elector Saxony. Became Elector in 1486 and supported the rise of German humanism. Founded the University of Wittenberg in 1502 and later invited both Luther and Melanchthon to teach there. Frederick is most famous for being Luther’s patron and protector.

Frederick III (1515-76) Elector Palatine, German prince under whose leadership the Palatinate, (from 1559), one of the six ‘secular’ German electorates was transformed into a hotbed of continental Calvinism. Frederick chose the Calvinist way and sponsored the Heidelberg Catechism despite bitter and threatening opposition from the majority (Lutheran) electors and princes.

Free will With Augustine and against Pelagius and semi-Pelagianism, Luther affirmed in On the Bondage of the Will (1525), that fallen humans do not have the ability to will the contrary to God. When fallen humans believe, they do so because God has chosen them to believe. Calvin and Reformed theology took up this strand of Protestantism. Melanchthon and Later Lutheranism retreated from Luther’s denial of human free will.

French Wars of Religion (1562-1594) The nearly continual war between the Huguenots (taken from a Medieval romance about King Hugo) and Roman Catholics. In 1559 the French Protestant Church organized as a Calvinist basis. The Protestant Calvinist minority was fiercely opposed by the Catholic majority and Francis II (the house of Guise). The massacre on St. Bartholomew’s Day, (23-4 November) 1572, badly crippled the fledgling movement. Most reliable estimates begin at about 10,000 deaths. The Wars came to a close with the Edict of Nantes (1598).

G

Gerhard, Johann (1582-1637) German Lutheran scholastic theologian. He became professor at Jena in 1616. His greatest work was his Loci theologici (1610-22) was one of the most important texts in late Reformation Lutheran theology.

Gottschalk (c.804-c.869) A Swiss monk, he is most famous for his stoutly Augustinian and predestinarian soteriology. A controversial figure in his (Benedictine) order, he was embroiled in disputes through much of his life. Charged with an irregular ordination, he was more or less jailed in a monastery from where he published predestinarian views. He also defended a robust trinitarianism against the prevailing modalism of his day.

Grace: (L. gratia) Undeserved divine favor toward sinners. The medieval notion was that grace is a substance which can be imparted or dispensed through human agency to sinners. The Protestant view is that grace is a divine disposition toward sinners.

Gregory I (c.540-604) The learned son of a Roman senator, and himself praefector urbi of Rome. He left his life of privilege, sold his belongings and entered St Andrew’s monastery. A skillful administrator and diplomat, in 590 was made pope by acclamation of the people and clergy. His Pastoral Rule is still read and his exposition of Job witnesses the judicious use of the quadriga (q.v.), the emphasis in this text on the moral sense.

Grebel, Conrad (c.1498-1526) Leader of the Anabaptist Swiss Brethren. He died of the plague.

Grindal, Edmund (c.1519-83) Archbishop of Canterbury. Onetime chaplain to Edward VI, a Protestant who was forced into exile during Mary’s reign, who, upon his return to England in 1559, attempted to mediate between the Scots Presbyterians (Knox) and the defenders of the 1552 Prayer Book. He refused Elizabeth I’s order to suppress the Puritan prophesyings and was a moderate sympathizer with the Puritan critics of episcopacy.

Gropper, Johann (1503-59) German, Roman Catholic theologian and critic of Protestantism. He, negotiated the Book of Regensburg with Martin Bucer in 1540-41.

H

Habit: (L. habitus) A disposition toward obedience, on which basis certain Medieval theologians said one was justified.

Hapsburg Empire This family played a central rôle in the 16c. In the early phase of the Reformation Charles V (1500-58) collaborated with his brother Ferdinand I (1503-64), Archduke of Austria to alternately oppose and tolerate the Reformation as it suited their political needs. The Empire was Roman Catholic until the Reformation. With the eruption of Protestantism, Charles faced a three-front battle for control of the Empire. To the east the Turkish threat steadily increased. To the West he was prosecuting a war against Francis and the Papacy for the control of Europe. With his attention distracted externally, he lost ground internally. He was unable to stop the Reformation, and was forced to fight the Protestant Schmalkald League (of Protestant German princes) for control of the Empire. With the failure of the Interim (1548) he settled for the Peace of Augsburg (1555). Exhausted by it all, he abdicated in favor of brother Ferdinand the next year. On his abdication he divided his empire between his sons Philip II (1527-98) who was made King of Spain and for a time was married to “Bloody Mary” Tudor (1554-8), Charles (1540-90), and brother Ferdinand I. The weakness and division of the Empire only enabled the Reformation to flourish and Calvinism made inroads in Germany under Charles’ sons. Maximillian II (1527-76) ruled from 1564-76 and was essentially tolerant of the Reformation whilst maintaining a formal Roman Catholic allegiance. His son, Rudolf II (1552-1612) who ruled from 1576 was an odd duck, indulged in the black arts and supported the Counter-Reformation.

Heidelberg Catechism (1563) German Calvinist catechism written to consolidate the Calvinist Reformation of Heidelberg. Though its primary authors were (probably) Zacharias Ursinus and Caspar Olevian, it was approved by a synod in Heidelberg and its authorship remains somewhat uncertain. Its primary source was Ursinus Larger Catechism, it bears resemblance to earlier Lutheran documents and to Calvin’s Genevan catechism. It was adopted by several Reformed synods including the Synod of Dort (1618-19). It has remained, with the Belgic Confession and the Canons of Dort one of the Three Forms of Unity. It is, alongside the Westminster Shorter Catechism, the most beloved of all Calvinist confessional documents.

Helvetic Confession, First (1536) A confession in 28 articles written in response to the Pope Clement VII’s call for an ecumenical council to be convened at Mantua (later moved to Trent). The Reformed theologians of Basle led by Martin Bucer and Wolfgang Capito and the Reformed theologians of Zürich, namely H. Bullinger, L. Jud, O. Myconius, et al met 1-4 February. The document was signed on the last day. Luther read it in 1537 and responded favorably.

Helvetic Confession, Second (1561-6) A private confession in 30 articles written by H. Bullinger adopted by all the Swiss Cantons and used widely by Reformed Protestants across the world in the 16c. Bucer approved an early draft. It likely influenced the Heidelberg theologians as they drafted the Catechism (1563).

Henri IV (1553-1610) King of France. Raised as a Protestant (Calvinist) he became King of Navarre in 1572. In line to the French throne, he was forced to chose between his Protestant faith and his desire to rule a Roman Catholic nation. He was opposed by the Guise, Philip II and the Pope. In 1593 he converted to Rome to accede to the throne. Whether Henry was sincere in this ‘conversion’ is still debated hotly. He was, in all events, quite friendly to Protestants and promulgated the tolerant Edict of Nantes (1598). He was assassinated.

Henry VIII (1497-1547) King of England from 1509. He opposed the Reformation early. His tract against Luther’s earned him the title, Defensor Fidei (Defender of the Faith) from Leo X. He broke with Rome and made himself head of the English Church when Clement VII would not annul his marriage to Catherine of Arragon to he could re-marry and produce an heir The Pope excommunicated him in 1533. Three years later the break was complete. He dissolved the monastaries, confiscated their wealth, established the 10 Articles (1536), and required the English Bible to be set up in Churches (1538). Perhaps most importantly, he had Edward educated by Protestants. Yet he also ordered spasmodically persecution of Protestants.

Hoffmann, Melchior (c.1500-c.1543) German radical (Anabaptist) theologian. He associated with Lutherans becoming a lay-preacher in 1523. By 1529 he had abandoned Luther’s doctrine of the Eucharist arguing that it was only a remembrance. He also began to adopt pronounced apocalyptic-eschatological views. By 1533 he was convinced that Strasbourg would be the place where Jesus returned to consummate the golden age. A fiery visionary he was quite influential among the radicals.

Homoousion A Greek term, literally meaning “of the same substance,” which came to be used extensively during the fourth century to designate the mainstream Christological belief that Jesus Christ was “of the same substance as God.” The term was polemical, being directed against the Arian view that Christ was “of similar substance” (homoiousion) to God.

Hooker, Richard (c.1554-1600) Perhaps the principal theologian of the conforming stream of the Elizabethan Anglican church. He was the greatest defender of the Elizabethan via media(middle way) settlement between Rome and the Puritans. Mildly Calvinist in his soteriology, Hooker rejected the Calvinist regulative principle (only that may be done in worship which is explicitly commanded in Scripture or implicitly required) in favor of a more Lutheran approach (that which is not forbidden is allowed) to defend Episcopacy, the Erastian relations of Church and State in England. Nevertheless, he accepted the ordination of the Continental Protestants and held a Calvinist view of the Eucharist.

Hooper, John (d.1555) Bishop of Gloucester, and Worcester and one of the Oxford Martyrs, with Nicolas Ridley (Bp of London), to be burnt alive at the stake on the Broad Street in front of the Master’s Lodgings of Balliol College, on 9 February. He is perhaps most famous for his last words, ‘Be of good comfort Master Ridley, and play the man. We shall this day light such a candle, by God’s grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out’.

Hübmair, Balthasar (c.1485-1528) German radical (anabaptist). A student under the Roman Catholic theologian J. Eck, he began a parish priest serving until about 1523. After coming into contact with Zwingli and the Swiss Reformers, he identified with the Reformation. By 1525, however, he abandoned the magisterial Reformation for the radical side attacking Zwingli’s doctrine of infant baptism. Entangled in the peasant wars (1525) he fled to Zürich for safety, and was forced by Zwingli to renounce his radical views. Upon leaving he recanted and settled in Moravia where he wrote anabaptist tracts. He was extradited to Vienna where he was burnt on 10 March, 1528.

Humanism A complex movement which was one of the primary engines of the late Medieval and early Modern Renaissance. It was an intellectual and social move from 14c-16c toward pedagogical reform, intellectual, spiritual and moral renewal through a return ad fontesincluding Scripture, classical and patristic sources. It also connotes a commitment to a historical and grammatical way of reading texts, a rejection of mythology and superstition, and a return to rhetorical elegance. As it was not a single movement, there were Christian as well as pagan strains of Renaissance Humanism. The Christians, many of whom (but not all) became Protestants valued the Bible as the primary Christian text, whereas those infatuated with the Classical world sought to reproduce it in their own time. This enterprise largely failed and the rotting stump of Classical humanism degenerated into what became first Deism then the Enlightenment rejection of not only the Classical but also the Christian worldview.

Hus, Jan (c.1372-1415) Bohemian foreunner of the Reformation. After coming into contact with Wycliffe’s views he began agitating for moral reform of the Czech Church. He died at the stake.

Hypostatic union The doctrine of the union, without confusion, of divine and human natures in Jesus Christ. Some Gnesio-Lutherans regarded the doctrine of the hypostatic union as insufficient to account for the biblical revelation whereas Reformed theology gave to it more hearty support.

I

Ignatius of Loyola (c.1491/5-1556) Spanish founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). A soldier, he was wounded in battle. During his recovery he read the life of Christ and other biographies, after which he vowed to become a soldier for Christ. He made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem (1523) and took an MA is Paris (1535). There he committed himself unreservedly to the service of the Pope.

Imputation: The Protestant notion that Christ’s active (life) and passive (suffering and death) obedience (righteousness) is ‘credited’ graciously to sinners when they are united to Christ by faith.

Infusion: The process by which, according to most medieval theologians, sinners are filled up with divine grace for sanctification and ultimately for salvation.

Inquisition (1232-) The judicial punishment of doctrinal heresy by Roman Catholic church courts. Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II issued an edict giving the state the power to hunt out and punish heretics. Not to be outdone, Pope Gregory IX appointed Papal inquisitors, mainly from the Dominicans and Franciscans. Early on, ordinary penances were assigned, later physical punishment began to become more common. In the late 15c the Spanish Inquisition was instituted and existed officially until 1834. This inquisition was highly effective at wiping out the nascent Protestant movement in Spain.

J

Julius II (1443-1513) Pope from 1503. Nephew of Pope Sixtus IV who loaded him with benefices and bishoprics. On the election of Alexander VI to the papacy, he was forced to flee to France for his own safety. He was elected after the brief reign of Pius III. His chief accomplishment was to secure temporal power for the papacy within Italy. He was a generous patron of renaissance art and began St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome, the indulgences for which stimulated Luther’s 95 theses.

Justification: Derived from the Latin v. iustificare ‘to make or declare righteous’. 1.Biblical doctrine is summarized in key passages such as Romans 1:17; 3:21; Galatians 2:20-1. Paul clearly taught a forensic doctrine of justification, that we are graciously declared righteous through faith in Christ. 2.Roman Catholic doctrine (at least since the Council of Trent) has been that one is made righteous through the operation of divine grace. 3.Protestant doctrine is that God freely imputes Christ’s righteousness to his people and declares them to be righteous in his sight. This righteousness is received by faith in Christ alone.

K

Karlstadt (c.1480-1541) [aka Andreas Bodenstein]. A German Protestant reformer, professor at the University of Wittenberg, and sometime colleague of Martin Luther. On becoming a Protestant he abandoned his Thomist realism, and moved to a radically Augustinian doctrine of sin and what might be termed a ‘puritan’ style of worship. Luther opposed the latter move and agreed with the former. Karlstadt may have been one of reason’s Luther became a more profound Augustinian. Because of his ecclesiastical radicalism Luther began to regard him as a traitor to the Reformation and he was eventually forced to flee to a professorship in Basle.

Knox, John (c.1513-72) The greatest of the Scots Reformers. Educated originally for the priesthood, he worked as a tutor until the mid 1540’s when he came under the influence of the Protestant George Wishart. By 1547 he was the preacher in St. Andrews. The same year he was taken prisoner with several other Scottish Protestants and imprisoned in France until 1549. Upon release he went to England and in 1551 he was made He was made chaplain to Edward VI. At Mary’s accession he fled with the other puritans, first to Frankfort where he pastored the puritans. He returned briefly to Scotland but was called in 1555 to Geneva where he pastored the English speaking congregation. In 1559 he returned to Scotland and in 1560 he wrote the Scots confession. He campaigned relentlessly against Mary Stuart through 1567 until her abdication.

L

Lambeth Articles (1595) Nine Calvinist articles authorized by Abp Whitgift teaching supralapsarianism.

Latimer, Hugh (c.1485-1555) Bp of Worcester and Reformer. Early in the 1520’s began to move toward Protestantism. He was one of the few pastors licensed to preach throughout England. With N. Ridley, he was one of the Oxford Martyrs in 1555.

Laud, William (1573-1645) Chancellor of the University of Oxford, Abp of Canterbury, and staunch Arminian opponent of English Calvinism. Attempted to suppress and impose uniformity upon the Puritans, transformed communion tables to altars. After the ‘etcetera oath’ he was suspended by Charles I. He was impeached and imprisoned by the Parliament. Tried in 1644 and decapitated in 1645.

Leo X (1475-1521) Pope from 1513 (at age 38!). He is most famous for excommunicating Martin Luther in 1520.

Limited atonement An approach to the doctrine of the atonement, taught by Augustine (d.430) Prosper (d.460) and later by Gottschalk and Ratramnus in the 9th century. In the 12th century, Lombard’s Sentences 3.20 taught a distinction between the sufficiency and efficiency of Christ’s death. In the 13th century, Thomas upheld this distinction , and since the Reformation associated with Calvinist writers (though Luther implied it in De servo arbitrio[1525]), which holds that Christ’s death is only effective for those who have been elected to salvation.

Loyola, Ignatius. See Ignatius.

Luther, Martin (1483-1546). German Protestant Reformer. Son of a Saxon miner, Martin was intended for the law, but, as a young man he became increasingly aware of God’s holiness and righteousness. He instead became an observant Augustinian monk. Unable to find relief through monkish exercises, and G. Biel’s semi-Pelagian theology, he was made a Professor of Biblical Theology at Wittenberg. As he taught through the Psalms he became increasingly Augustinian. As he lectured on the Book of Romans he had a breakthrough realisation that justification is not a process but an event, not the product of cooperation with grace but God’s unearned gift.

Lutheranism The religious ideas associated with Martin Luther, particularly as expressed in the Lesser Catechism (1529) and the Augsburg Confession (1530). A series of internal disagreements within Lutheranism after Luther’s death (1546) between hardliners (the so-called “Gnesio-Lutherans” or “Flacianists”) and moderates (“Philippists”), led to their resolution by the Formula of Concord (1577), which is usually regarded as the authoritative statement of Lutheran theology.

M

Machiavelli, Niccolò (1469-1527) Italian pagan classicist-humanist and early modern political philosopher in the service of the Medici’s. For him, politics is a purely secular business, the ruthless quest for power.

Magedeburg Centuries (see Flaccius).

Magisterial Reformation A term used to refer to the Lutheran and Reformed wings of the Reformation, as opposed to the radical wing (Anabaptism and unitarianism).

Major, George (1502-74) The principal figure in the controversy among Lutheran theologians (1551-2) over whether good works are necessary to justification. He originally taught that no one could be justified without good works. After being attacked by Nikolas von Amsdorff and M. Flaccius as a traitor the Reformation he modified his position to say that work are a token of the Christian’s faith.

Marburg, Colloquy (1529) called by Philip of Hesse in an attempt work out differences between the Swiss (Zwingli, Oecolampad, Bucer) and German Protestants (Luther and Melanchthon) on the Eucharist. Luther and Zwingli failed to agree on the nature of Christ’s presence in the Supper irrevocably separating Lutheran from Reformed Protestants.

Mary Queen of Scots (1542-87) Queen from 1543-67. The mother of the future King James VI, she was the Roman Catholic ruler of Scotland when the Protestant reformation erupted. Unable to suppress Knox et al she was forced to abdicate. She spent her last 14 years imprisoned and plotting her return to power until she was executed.

Mass Derived from the Latin missa [mitto, ere ‘to send’]. The concluding words of the mass areIte, missa est ‘Go, you are dismissed’. By the 5c the phrase missam facere was in use in the West. It now denotes a sacrificial, priestly offering which is the central act of Roman Catholic worship.

Meister. See Eckhart.

Melanchthon, Philip (1497-1560) Protestant Humanist and theologian. He was made Professor of Greek at Wittenberg. In 1521 he published his Loci communes, the first Protestant systematic theology. He was the primary author of the authoritative Lutheran confession: The Augsburg Confession (1530). As early as 1524 his own theology began to move away from Luther’s on predestination. By 1540 he moved away from Luther on the Supper and revised the confession to reflect his new views. Philip was massively influential on later Lutheranism and German Protestantism.

Merit, condign: (L. meritum de condigno). Medieval scholastic term which describes a claim to reward (salvation) on the basis of the inherent value of a work performed. A work was said to have condign merit if it is perforemd with the assistance of divine grace, with a Spirit-wrought motive, by one in the state of grace. A work has condign merit meets because it meets the terms of justice and therefore God is said to recognize its worth (condignity) as a matter of strict justice.

Meritcongruent: (L. meritum de congruo): Medieval scholastic term denoting a claim to reward (salvation) that lacks intrinsic value (condignity) and that is disproportionate to the reward offered. Such a work is said to have congruent merit and therefore God is not obligated to reward it but does so freely by imputing perfection to it. In some schemes, God was said to have covenanted to reward those “who do what lies within them” (facientibus quod in se est, Deus non denegat gratiam). It was thought possible by some medieval theologians for one outside of a state of grace to to receive congruent merit by doing “what lies within them.”

Millenary Petition (1603) An attempt by English Puritans to gain relief from the Elizabethan settlement (conformity) rejected by King James I.

Modalism A Trinitarian heresy, which treats the three persons of the Trinity as different “modes” of the Godhead. A typical modalist approach is to regard God as active as Father in creation, as Son in redemption, and as Spirit in sanctification.

Molina, Luis de (1535-1600) Spanish Jesuit, Roman Catholic theology. He taught a doctrine of salvation (Concordia liberi arbitrii cum gratiae donis, 1588) whereby the God is said to know that we will cooperate with divine grace.

More, Thomas (1478-1535) Lord Chancellor of England, Roman Catholic theologian and humanist scholar. He was an advocate, like Erasmus, of moral reform in the Church. He controverted against Luther. His opposition to Henry VIII’s divorce of Catherine of Arragon cost his life.

Münster (1534) Site of an infamous debacle in which apocalyptic (Melchiorite) Anabaptists arrived in Münster in large numbers. The new Burgomeister warned those who did not support the radicals to leave town. The Prince-Bishop attacked the city. Jan Beukelz succeeded the Burgomeister and dissolved the city council, imposed compulsory polygamy, executed leaders of a failed coup, and declared himself the ‘universal king of righteousness’. Münster became a symbol to the mainline-magisterial reformers for radical excesses.

Müntzer, Thomas (c.1490-1525) Leader of the radical reformation and social revolutionary. Initially attracted to Luther’s Protestantism, he was present for the Leipzig disputation. He was called to preach at Zwickau where he met the Zwickau Prophets. He was deposed for his radicalism and violent anti-clericalism. He issued a call to arms in defense of the gospel. He also helped stimulate the Peasants’ Revolt in 1525 in So. Germany.

Musculus, Abraham (1497-1563) Reformed Protestant theologian in Bern (Switzerland). Musculus was an Erastian and thus in conflict with Geneva on questions of Church polity. HisLoci communes (Common Places) was very influential among Reformed theologians.

Myconius, Friedrich (1490-1546) Protestant reformer and preacher. He was present for several of the most important theological conferences in late 1530’s and early 40’s.

Myconius, Oswald (1488-1522) Swiss Reformer and humanist scholar. An associate of Erasmus, he worked with Zwingli in the reformation of Zürich. He succeeded Oecolampad in Basle. He also worked for a compromise with the Lutherans on the Eucharist.

N

Nestorius (fl. 428-c.451) Patriarch of Constantinople, and an extreme Antiochene. He denied that the BVM was Theotokos. He seems almost to have thought of the two natures as two persons, and thus denied any real union of the divine with the human. He was condemned by the Council of Ephesus in 431. The Chalcedon Definition rejected Nestorius’ separation of the two natures.

Nicene Creed The creed was written to defend the orthodox Christian faith against those (Arians) who denied the doctrine of the Trinity and the deity of Jesus. The Arians contended that Jesus was substantially like God the Father homoiousion). The orthodox Church affirmed that Jesus is God the Son, consubstantial with the Father and the Spirit and thus used the term homoiousion.

Nominalism Strictly speaking, the theory of knowledge (epistemology) opposed to realism (Thomas Aquinas) associated most strongly with William of Ockham. It posits that, in effect, that there is no necessary relation between the name (nomen) and the thing named. Names are mere conventions. Theologically this movement has often been connected with a strong emphasis on the divine will (voluntarism).

O

Ochino, Berdardino (1487-1564) Italian Franciscan monk converted who became a Protestant reformer through the influence of Peter Martyr Vergmigli. He was well known for his eloquent preaching even before his conversion to Protestantism. He fled to Geneva to escape the inquisition. He pastored an Italian refugee congregation in Augsburg (1545-7). From there he was invited by Cranmer to England where he wrote against the papacy and the doctrine of predestination. On Mary’s accession he, he fled to Zürich where he was made a pastor. He was later expelled from office for heterodoxy and went to Poland where there was a growing anti-Trinitarian community.

Ockham,William (c.1285-1347) Venerabilis inceptor. An English Franciscan theologian and philosopher. A Greyfriar, he taught in Oxford and Avignon. A Philosophical nominalist, Ockham reacted to Thomas’ realism by arguing that universalia were merely hypothetical and by rejecting the efficacy of Thomas’ “Five Ways”. God’s existence is a revealed, not rational truth. Contrary to Thomas’ emphasis on universals, he wanted to discuss individua. Theologically he tended to Pelagianism and reacted to Thomas’ intellectualism by stressing the divine freedom and will (voluntarism) by distinguishing between the two powers (de potentia absoluta et ordinata). According to the absolute divine power (de potentia absoluta), God the Son might have become incarnate as a donkey, but according to the ordained power of God (de potentia ordinata) he became incarnate as a human being. Sin is “sin” only because God says so, not because it is so naturally. The sacraments were said to have power to impart grace de potentia ordinata only because of the pactum. That is, God having willed and promised he gives grace to those who do what is in them (facientibus quod in se est, Deus not denegat gratiam). This was the soteriology of the via moderna.

Oecolampadius (Johannes Hussgen/Husschin 1482-1531) German Protestant humanist scholar and theologian. He took up Luther’s position briefly, abandoned it, then returned to Protestantism by 1522. He was influential in advancing the Reformation in Basel. He sided with Zwingli at Marburg, (1529).

Olevian, Caspar (1536-85) One of the two primary authors of the Heidelberg Catechism (1563) and a central figure in the development of Reformed federal theology.

Orthodoxy A term used in a number of senses, of which the following are the most important: Orthodoxy in the sense of “right belief,” as opposed to heresy; orthodoxy in the sense of a movement within Protestantism, especially in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, which laid emphasis upon need for doctrinal definition.

Osiander (1498-1552). Protestant theologian. First associated with the Lutheran cause in 1522. Participated in the Marburg Colloquy (1529) and the Reichstag/Diet of Augsburg (1530). He signed the Lutheran Schmalkald Articles (1531). By 1549 he was professor of theology at Königsburg and the next year he published De Iustificatione rejecting imputed righteousness for infused righteousness. He was roundly attacked by Protestants for abandoning the gospel. His niece, Margaret, was Thomas Cranmer’s (illegal and hidden) wife (1532).

P

Parker, Matthew (1504-75) Archbishop of Canterbury. Supported the moderate Protestants under Henry VIII and Edward VI. Upon Elizabeth’s accession he was made Abp. Against the Puritans he ordered the use the surplice. He published the Bishops’ Bible, revised the Articles of Religion to 39 and enforced the Elizabethan settlement.

Patrick (c.389-461) Born in Britain, he was captured at age 16 and taken to Ireland by pirates where he lived for 6 years as a shepherd. During this time he became more devout in his faith. Having escaped, he traveled 200 miles north, talked his way aboard a ship and returned to Britain where he trained for the ministry. He returned to Ireland where he helped to establish the church. His widely read Confession witnesses to the influence of Augustine’s theology in Roman Britain.

Patristic An adjective used to refer to the first centuries in the history of the church, following the writing of the New Testament (the “patristic period”), or scholars writing during this period (the “patristic writers”). For many writers, the period thus designated seems to be c.100-451 (in other words, the period between the completion of the last of the New Testament writings and the Council of Chalcedon).

Paul III (1468-1549) Pope from 1534. A typical Renaissance pope—he had three sons and a daughter!—he also pursued the organizational reform of the church. He approved the Jesuit order, re-established the Inquisition and vigorously pursued a general council which became the Council of Trent. He made Michelangelo chief architect of St. Peter’s Basilica.

Paul IV (1476-1559) Pope from 1555. The first Counter-Reformation Pope. His violent opposition to Protestantism seemed only to strengthen the movement he hated.

Pelagius (c.400) British monk and lay theologian who taught that man is capable of cooperating (by free will) with God in working toward salvation, apart from prevenient (foregoing) divine grace. This view was rejected at the Council of Carthage AD 411) and strongly attacked by Augustine. Semi-Pelagianism teaches that one is able to cooperate with God toward salvation and thus merits divine grace which continues to help. This view dominated the Western Church from shortly after Augustine until the Reformation.

Perichoresis A term relating to the doctrine of the Trinity, often also referred to by the Latin term circumincessio. The basic notion is that all three persons of the Trinity mutually share in the life of the others, so that none is isolated or detached from the actions of the others.

Perkins, William (1558-1608) English Protestant (Puritan) Reformed theologian. A fellow of Christ’s College, and lecturer in Great St. Andrews Church, Cambridge. He was the first and greatest of the English Puritan Puritans divines. His Golden Chaine (1590) was extremely influential in Puritan theology. He inaugurated a style of theology which combined technical mastery with warm, practical popularity.

Peter of Lombard (c.1100-60). The ‘Master of the Sentences’. Peter wrote the standard textbook of medieval theology. Lombard’s Sententiae were unsurpassed until Aquinas’ Summa.

Pico della Mirandola, G. (1463-94) Leading Italian humanist scholar. A Classicist, he was one of the few people of his age to read Hebrew, Aramaic and Arabic. Most famous for his heterodox 900 theses which he proposed to defend in 1486 but no one took him up.

Pietism An approach to Christianity, especially associated with German writers in the seventeenth century, which places an emphasis upon the personal appropriation of faith, and the need for holiness in Christian living. The movement is perhaps best known within the English-language world in the form of Methodism.

Pius IV (1499-1565) Pope from 1559. As Pope he reversed the anti-imperial (Hapsburg) policy of Paul IV. His most notable accomplishment was to reassemble the Council of Trent and see it to its conclusion in 1562-3. After Trent he promulgated a new index of banned books and a new Roman Catechism (1564).

Pius V (1504-72) Pope from 1566. A Dominican monk, philosopher and theologian, he worked for moral reform in the church. He compelled Bishops and Priests to assent to the Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, reformed the Breviary (Roman liturgical book), the Missal (book for the Mass), made Thomas Aquinas Doctor Ecclesiae and ordered his works reprinted. He prosecuted the Inquisition in Spain and excommunicated Elizabeth I.

Polanus, Amandus (1561-1610) O.T. Professor in Basel and an important figure in the development of Protestant (in this case Reformed) orthodoxy and scholasticism. Like most other Protestant orthodox/scholastic theologians he was first of all a biblical exegete. He wrote against Bellarmine and produced two systematic works. His Syntagma theologiae Christianae (1609) is an important extended defense of Reformed theology.

Pole, Reginald (1500-58) Abp of Canterbury and humanist scholar. While in Italy he criticised Henry VIII’s divorce from Catherine of Arragon. He served as a papal legate. He consulted with Contarini before Ratisbon. He was nearly elected Pope in ’49. On Mary’s accession he became papal legate to England. After Cranmer’s martyrdom in 1556 he was created Apb of Canterbury. He cooperated in the persecution of Protestants.

Principium theologiae the foundations of theology. Scripture is the objective foundation (principium externum) of “knowing” (cognoscendi) and it is God (principium essendi) who is known. Faith is the internal (internum) ground of knowing.

Protestant The term dates formally from the protest lodged at the Diet of Speyer (1529) by the Lutheran princes against the revocation of tolerance. The term, however, has long been used to refer to a system of doctrine which rejected the late Medieval Roman Catholic doctrines of salvation infused grace, semi-Pelagianism, merit, the papacy, the priesthood, and its twin sources of authority, in favor of an Augustinian (predestinarian) doctrine of salvation by prevenient, unmerited divine favor, because of which Christ’s merits are imputed to the undeserving sinner, the benefits of which are received through faith alone, which looks to Christ alone for salvation. Protestants also hold that Scripture alone has unique authority for faith and life.

Q

Quadriga The fourfold pattern of Medieval biblical exegesis flowing from 3rd century Alexandrian (e.g., Origen) distinction between the “literal” and “spiritual” senses of the biblical text. The questions is sought to answer were grounded in theological virtues of 1 Cor 13. What does a particular text say about faith, hope and love? The quadriga was revised and used widely in the medieval church for more than a millennium. The senses are: 1.Sensus historicus/literalis: the grammatical-historical sense of a passage; 2.Sensus allegoricus: the doctrinal sense, i.e., what does the text say about what it to be believed? 3.Sensus anagogicus: the eschatological message of a text, i.e., what is to be hoped?; 4.Sensus moralis/tropologicus: the moral message, i.e., what is to be done? While the system was certainly abused in the medieval church, many scholars recognized that not every passage would or should yield every sense. Though the Reformers inveighed against it, in practice it was not entirely discarded.

R

Racovian Catechism (1605) A Polish Socinian (Unitarian) catechism.

Radical Reformation A term used with increasing frequency to refer to the Anabaptist movement – in other words, the wing of the Reformation which went beyond what Luther and Zwingli envisaged.

Radbertus, Paschasius (c.790-c.860). Carolingian theologian most famous for his dialogue with Ratramnus over the nature of the Lord’s Supper. In his De corpore et sanguine domini(831/833, rev. 844) is the first major treatise on the Lord’s Supper in the medieval church. InDe corpore he argued that, at consecration, the elements of the Supper become the body and blood of Christ, anticipating the later doctrine of transubstantiation. In his, De corpore et sanguine domini (843/844), written at the request of Charles the Bald, Ratramnus (also of Corbie) responded by denying the transformation of the elements of the supper by arguing for a sort of Spiritual presence of Christ in the Supper. The debate turned on the question of what is veritas (literal) and what is figura or symbolic. Ratramnus argued that the body with which Christ was born, crucified and raised, is the body which he possesses in the ascension. Therefore, the body which we eat in the Supper is represented to us in a figure.

Rationalism. The Rationalist is certain that man can know and understand things exhaustively. The rationalist believes that he has one principle which explains reality (e.g., Evolution). The Greeks said that all is one (See Monism above). Rationalists always deny the existence of whatever appeared to contradict their belief. Some rationalists say what is true is what fits a logical syllogism. Modern rationalists (e.g., logical positivists) insist that only that is true which can be verified by sense experience. The flip side to the verification principle is the “falsification principle” which tries to show that a universal statement is not true if it can be falsified. This procedure tends toward skepticism and irrationalism. Contemporary linguistic analysis, by philosophers such as W.V.O. Quine, is making the application of both the verification and falsification principles far more difficult

Ramus, Peter (1515-72) Late Renaissance-humanist educational Reformer who promoted himself as a radical anti-Aristotelian. His controversial theories were quite influential on several Calvinist theologians in the late 16c and early 17c. He was murdered in the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre.

Ratramnus (d. ca.868) see Radbertus.

Raphael (1483-1520) One of the most famous of Renaissance painters.

Realism. An epistemology which says that we says that we know universalia by abstracting them from particulars. In distinction from nominalism (q.v.), realism posits a genuine connection between a name and the thing named. Realists tended to be interested inuniversalia since it is these which give particulars their meaning.

Reformed Used early in the Reformation (c.1517-40’s/50’s) as a synonym for evangelical, i.e., those supporting the theological, moral and ecclesial reformation of the Church. As early as the late 1520’s, flowing from Zwingli’s Christological differences with Luther, a self-conscious break began to occur between Lutherans (though many Reformed, including Calvin,wore that badge with honor) and those wishing to press on with the Reformation. As a label it is slightly broader than Calvinist as it encompasses the Zwinglians (Zwingli, Bullinger, et al) and Peter Martyr and J. Zanchi and others as well as Calvin and the Calvinists.

Regensburg, Colloquy of: (1541) Also called Ratisbon. site of the Imperial Reichstag (Diet) of 27 April – 22 May 1541. Attended by J. Eck, J. von Pflug, J. Gropper representing Rome; and Philip Melanchthon, Martin Bucer and M. Pistorius representing the Protestants.

Renaissance Humanism (see humanism)

Reuchlin, Johannes (1455-1522) German humanist and Hebrew scholar and the uncle of Philip Melanchthon.

Ridley, Nicholas (c.1500-55) The Protestant Bishop of London who, with H. Latimer, was martyred in Oxford by Mary Tudor.

S

Sabellianism An early trinitarian heresy, which treated the three persons of the Trinity as different historical manifestations of the one God. See pp. 256-7.

Sacrament In purely historical terms, a church service or rite which was held to have been instituted by Jesus Christ himself. Although Roman Catholic theology and church practice recognize seven such sacraments (baptism, confirmation, eucharist, marriage, ordination, penance, and unction), Protestant theologians generally argue that only two (baptism and eucharist) were to be found in the New Testament itself.

Sadoleto, Jacopo (1477-1547) Cardinal, humanist scholar. In 1539 Sadoleto wrote a remarkable letter attempting to persuade the citizens of Geneva to return to Holy Mother Church occasioning an equally remarkable response by Calvin in defense of the Reformation.

Sanctification: (L. sanctificare, “to make or treat as holy”). Has definitive and progressive aspects. In Christ we are once for all declared holy for the sake of Christ, but called to work out that holiness by the grace of God. Protestants argue that Roman Catholic theology confuses sanctification and justification.

Sattler, Michael (c.1490-1527) Anabaptist leader. Trained as a monk, he associated with the Anabaptist movement, in Zürich, in 1525. He was expelled and fled to Strasbourg. He presided over the conference (1527) which drafted the Schleitheim Confession. He was brutally executed for his views.

Savanarola, Girolamo (1452-1498) Italian moral-ecclesiastical Reformer. A Dominican monk he became famous for a series of sermons preached on the Revelation and later for predicting judgment on Florence. When he was able to Charles VIII of France not to invade Florence he predicted a golden age for the city in which she would rule Italy. He also attacked to corrupt Papacy of Alexander VI. He was tried for heresy and executed.

Saxon Confession (1551) Protestant confession written by Philip Melanchthon written for the Emperor for the Council of Trent.

Schleitheim, Confession of (1527) An informal Anabaptist (Swiss Brethren) confession of faith in seven articles, composed in Schleitheim. The confession teaches believer’s baptism, pacifism, forbids oath taking.

Schmalkald Articles (1537) A confession of faith, in three parts, written by Luther in preparation for the Council to be convened at Mantua (eventually meeting at Trent). Though never officially endorsed, they were incorporated into the Lutheran Book of Concord (1580).

Schmalkald League (1531-47) A confederation of Protestant German princes formed in reaction to Charles V’s Augsburg Recess (1530). The league united Lutherans and Swiss Reformed Protestants temporarily against the Hapsburgs. Eventually Charles crushed the princes in battle.

Scholasticism: a technical and logical approach to systematic theological, in which each theological topic or locus was divided into its component parts, the parts analyzed and then defined precisely in careful propositional form.

Schwabach Articles (1529) 17 articles revised from the articles drafted for the Marburg Colloquy. They formed the basis for the Augsburg Confession (1530).

Scotism The scholastic philosophy associated with Duns Scotus.

Scots, Confession of Faith (1560) The first confession of faith by the Scots Reformed (Calvinist) Church. Adopted by the Scottish Parliament it was the confession of the Scottish Protestants until replaced by the Westminster Confession (1647).

Semi-Pelagianism A 17c (anti-Molinist) designation for the reaction against Augustine’s anti-Pelagian emphasis on original sin, our federal union with Adam and predestination. The semi-Pelagians agreed with Augustine that we fell with Adam but tended to minimize the effect of sin such that the sinner is said to be retain a free-will and is able to cooperate with divine grace. Prosper of Aquitaine (c.390-463), Gottschalk (c.804-c.869) and Gregory of Rimini (†1358) are among those who attacked the prevailing semi-Pelagianism in the West before the Reformation. Luther and the Reformers reacted strongly against the semi-Pelagianism of Late medieval theologians such as Gabriel Biel. Later Protestants attacked Arminius for semi-Pelagianism.

Sensus Deitatis A widely held Christian teaching but most closely associated with Calvin in the Reformation, taken from Romans 1-2, that all human beings are created with some true, but unsaving knowledge of God. Its primary function is to serve as a witness to our depravity and to leave us without excuse.

Seripando, Girolamo (1493-1563) Italian Cardinal and Papal legate to and one-time President of the Council of Trent. His views on sin and justification were not those of Trent and he attempted, with Contarini to forestall the semi-Pelagian settlement.

Servetus, Michael (1511-53) Spanish anti-Trinitarian lay theologian and physician. He corresponded with Calvin and replied to his Institutes at great length. He appeared unwisely, in Geneva, in 1533, where he was arrested (having already been burnt in effigy elsewhere) and eventually burnt by order of the city council.

Simons, Menno (1496-1561) Once a Dutch Roman Catholic priest, Menno renounced his orders and united with the Anabaptist movement in 1536. Ministered to Anabaptist communities for 25 years in the Netherlands and in North Germany. He stressed the community of believers, pacifism, withdrawal from the world and refused to use non-biblical terms in theology. The Mennonite movement takes its name from him.

Simul justus et peccator: Simultaneously righteous and a sinner (Luther).

Sin, venial, unlike moral sin, this sin does not deprive the soul of saving grace. The distinction was taught by Thomas and upheld by Trent. These do not require penance.

Sin, mortal, in Roman Catholic doctrine, is a deliberate sin willfully committed. If confessed, it can be pardoned; if committed just before death without intention of repentance results in loss of grace and eternal damnation.

Sixtus V (1521-1590) Pope from 1585. A Counter-Reformation Pope most famous for the revised edition of the Vulgate which he inaugurated.

Society of Jesus Founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1534, approved by Paul III in 1540. Its goals were to foster reform in the Church, serve as a reaction to Protestantism, and to do missions in the New World. They have a particular loyalty to the Papacy and serve his pleasure. They are known for their outstanding educational program.

Socinus, Lelio (1525-62) Influenced by Italian Protestantism and sometime friend of P. Melanchthon, he criticised Calvin’s Trinitarianism but satisfied Bullinger as to his orthodoxy.

Socinus, Faustus (1539-1604) The nephew of L. Socinus, denied Christ’s deity and human immortality early in his career. By the 1570’s he was attacking orthodox Protestantism and advocating Unitarianism.

Sola’s the. A series of formula (sola gratia, sola fide, sola Scriptura, solo Christo, soli Deo gloria) which became shorthand for the theological (and especially the soteriological) distinctives of the Reformation. Protestants believe that Scripture is alone the primary authority for faith and life (not that it is the only authority); that salvation is by unearned divine favor received only by the instrument of apprehensive faith (as opposed to an infused virtue) which receives Christ’s imputed righteousness. Christ alone is the proper object of saving faith and God only ought to receive all glory in salvation. It is sometimes objected that these are later formula and not proper to the Reformation itself. This is inaccurate. The expressions or synonyms are found widely in 16th and 17th century Protestant writers.

Solemn League and Covenant (1643) The agreement between the Scots and the English Parliament to maintain the Presbyterian Church of Scotland and reform the Church of England. Also a mutual defense treaty enabling the Scots to participate in the Westminster Assembly.

Soteriology The locus of Christian theology teaching the doctrine of salvation.

Speyer, Diet of (1526) The diet which established the principle, cuius regio, eius religio (To each region, its own religion).

Speyer, Diet of (1529) Diet at which the term ‘Protestant’ came into being. The Roman Catholic majority of electors voted to end toleration of Protestants. Six Lutheran princes and 14 cities responded with a protest to Archduke Ferdinand defending the freedom of conscience and their rights as a minority within the Empire.

Staupitz, Johann (c.1460/9-1529) Vicar-General of the Augustinian Friars of which Luther was a member. He was Luther’s patron, arranging for him to come to the University of Wittenberg. His strong predestinarian theology greatly influenced Luther.

Stephanus, Robert (1503-59) Printer to Francis I and of several Latin editions of the Bibles, of the Hebrew Old Testament, and the Greek New Testament. He advertised his 1550 edition of the NT to be the textus receptus (received text). In 1551 he fled to Geneva where he aligned himself with the Protestant cause, printed Calvin’s works, and introduced the versification of Scripture still used today.

Stuart, James I (1566-1625) King of England from 1603. Also James VI, King of Scotland from 1567. Tutored by stout Calvinists, he nevertheless moved to restore episcopacy in Scotland. On Elizabeth’s death he acceded to the English throne by virtue of his descent from Henry VII through his mother. Because he had allied himself with England as King of Scotland, he became King of Great Britain. He refused the Puritan petition for relief from uniformity; ordered the translation of the Authorized Version of the Bible which was first published in 1611. He upheld the divine right of kings and apostolic succession.

Suarez, Francisco de (1548-1617) Spanish Jesuit Counter-Reformation, Thomist theologian. He gained fame as a commentator on Aquinas’ Summa. His synthesis of Thomas and Aristotle exercised considerable influence upon Protestant theology. He agreed with Molina’s ‘congruism’. God has ‘middle knowledge’ (scientia media) by which gives grace to the elect which he forsees they will use properly in specifically arranged circumstances. He is usually considered the greatest theologian of the Jesuits.

Summa Theologica/Summa Theologiae (1265-74) Thomas Aquinas’ chief theological work in three parts, First part (Prima) on God in se and on creation. Second Part (Prima Secundae) of God as the end of man; and (Secunda Secundae) of man’s return to God; Third Part (Tertia) of Christ as the way to God. The last was unfinished.

Swiss Brethren (1525) The oldest German speaking Anabaptist group.

T

Tauler, Johann (1300-61) A German Dominican mystic. Influenced by Meister Eckhart earned fame as a preacher and ministry to the infected during the plague. His mysticism was largely about committing oneself completely to the divine will. Union with God is desirable for the benefits which it produces in the human soul. Luther was influenced by Tauler.

Tetrapolitan Confession (1530) The oldest Reformed confession in Germany representing four Swiss cities. Drafted hastily at the Diet of Augsburg chiefly by M. Bucer, it sought toleration for Zwinglians who were about to be excluded from Imperial toleration and protection. Unfortunately, it failed to gain a serious hearing at the Diet.

Thirty Years War (1618-48) A series of religio-political wars fought in Central Europe. These wars were largely the result of the weakness of the Holy Roman (German) Emperor and the unresolved tension produced by the Peace of Augsburg (1555) which excluded Calvinists and Zwinglians from its peace.

Transubstantiation The medieval doctrine according to which the bread and the wine are transformed into the body and blood of Christ in the eucharist, while retaining their outward appearance.

Tremellius, Johannes (1510-80) Jewish-Christian Hebrew scholar who became a Protestant in 1541. Taught in Cambridge University and Heidelberg University. His Latin translation of the OT (for scholars) was the first major Protestant translation and was widely used by Protestant theologians.

Thomism, (via Thomae) The scholastic philosophy and theology associated with Thomas Aquinas. Thomism enjoyed a resurgence in the 16th century prior to the Council of Trent and especially after. Not all Thomists in the 16th and 17th centuries were Papists, however. Several significant Protestants were trained in Thomism, including Zwingli, Martyr and Zanchi.

Trent, Council of (1545-63) A general council first called for Mantua to address the issues raised by the Protestant Reformation. For military and political reasons the council was relocated to Trent. It represents the apex of the Counter-Reformation response to Protestantism. Though there was some internal dissent, the Council pronounced the anathema upon the central Protestant doctrines.

Tudor, Mary (1516-58) Queen from 1558. On Edward’s death she acceded the throne and moved swiftly to outlaw Protestantism. She earned her nickname ‘Bloody Mary’ but her ruthless persecution of Protestants which drove hundreds of them across the channel into Europe for protection. Some of those who did not join the Marian exile were martyred for their faith, notably Abp Cranmer, and Bishops Ridley, Latimer and Hooper. She died a natural death.

Turretin, Francis (1623-1687) Italian Reformed scholastic theologian of Geneva. The principal author of the Helvetic Consensus (1675), he also wrote the very influential Institutio theologiae elencticae (1679-85). Turretin was one of the highpoints of 17th century Reformed scholasticism. His theology was determinative for much of succeeding Reformed orthodoxy well into the 19c and especially at Princeton Seminary where his Institutio was a textbook for some time. Later when students were unwilling to read the Latin Charles Hodge depended heavily on Turretin for his own Systematic Theology.

Tyndale, William (c.1494-1536) Protestant theologian and the greatest English translator of the Bible. He made the first English translation directly from the Greek text of the New Testament despite serious obstacles and the constant threat of imprisonment and death. His translation was so well done that it composes 90% of what became the Authorised Version (1611). A student in both Oxford and Cambridge, he came to Protestant sympathies quite early, he marks the beginning of the transition from Lutheranism to Reformed theology in England. He combined Luther’s doctrines of grace with Zwingli’s doctrine of the sacraments. Most of his work was done in Antwerp and his translation first arrived in England in 1526. He was martyred for the gospel.

U

Ubiquity. (From the Latin, ubiquitas) The Lutheran doctrine of the sacraments, grounded in its Christology, which holds that by the communication of the attributes of his divinity to his humanity (communicatio idiomatum) Christ is physically everywhere present and especially in the sacraments.

Unam sanctam (1302) Papal bull issued by Boniface VIII declaring that there is no salvation outside the ‘one Holy and Apostolic Church’, and affirming authority of the papacy and its authority in both temporal and spiritual matters.

Unio Mystica The mystical union of the believer with Christ. Though the unio Christo is a standard part of Protestant theology emphasizing the forensic, federal, union of the believer with Adam first and then Christ, the unio mystica became a distinctive of Reformed theology uniting the doctrine of justification (forensic idea of union) with the doctrine of union, i.e., the mystical and experiential and morally renovating aspects of the believer’s union with Christ. The latter, of course, is logically premised on the former. This notion found expression in Calvin and symbolically in the Heidelberg Catechism (1563).

Ursinus, Zacharias (1534-1583) Silesian/German Reformer. He began his theological career as a student of Philip Melanchthon. After Philip’s death, he was influenced by Calvin and Bullinger and moved in a Reformed direction. He is the primary author of the Heidelberg Catechism (1563) and an important early federal theologian.

Usus legis The “use of the law’. Luther taught two uses of the moral law (Decalogue). The first and most important use is to teach us our sin (usus theologicus sive elenchticus sive paedigogicus). The second use is to restrain sin in civil society (usus civilis sive politicus). Though he did not describe it as such, he did teach the normativity of the moral law for the Christian. Melanchthon, the Formula of Concord and the Reformed theologians developed the same to become the third use of the law (usus didacticus sive normativus).

V

Valla, Lorenzo (1405-57) Italian humanist scholar and textual critic. He exposed the fraudulent Donation of Constantine. He criticised the Vulgate as a translation and attacked scholasticism violently.

Vatican The principal papal residence, in Rome, after the Avignon Papacy (1308-77). The Vatican underwent substantial improvement in the 16c and was a symbol to many Protestants of Episcopal excess.

Vermigli, Peter Martyr (1500-1562) Italian Protestant theologian. Trained in Thomistic scholasticism, he encountered Protestant theology in the late 1530’s. By 1542 his Reformed colors began to show and he was forced to flee to Switzerland where he was quickly accepted by leading Protestants, including Bullinger and Calvin. Peter Martyr was made Regius Professor of Divinity at Oxford under Edward VI was among the first to adapt the new Protestant theology to the University by using Scholastic methods. His Common Places were widely read by Protestants in England and on the Continent. His influence can be traced in England to the Westminster Confession (1647) and on the Continent to the Canons of Dort (1619).

Via AntiquaThe Old Way. Realists in epistemology, they that there is a necessary relation between names and the thing named. Emphasis fell on universalia rather than individua. Theologically, they emphasized the logical priority of the divine intellect.

Via Moderna: The Modern Way. [Nominalists; e.g., William of Ockham] Argued that the relation between names and the thing named is more a convention than necessity. They reacted to Thomas by criticizing the claim that we know universals. In theology, they placed emphasis on the logical priority of the divine will (over the intellect) and emphasized the long-held distinction between the two divine potentia (powers) of the divine will.

Via mystica (The mystical way). A theological method in which the principle of knowledge is not Scripture by direct revelation. Orthodox Protestantism has attempted to steer between the via mystica and rationalism.

Vincentian canon: From Vincent of Lerins (d. ca. 450). A test or rule (hence “canon”) to determine the catholicity of a doctrine: “quod ubique, quod semper, quod ab omnibus creditum est” (that which is has been believed everywhere, always and by all; Comminitorium primum, 4.3, Migne, Patrologia Latina, 50, 640.

Vulgate (biblia vulgata) Latin translation of the Sacred Scriptures done mostly by Jerome from 382-4. It was the Bible of the Western Church for the next Millennium. Protestants were critical of many of its translations, and though they continued to use it until late in the 16c, the also began to make their own Latin translations for academic work. The fourth session of the Council of Trent (1546) declared it to be the only authorized Latin text of the Bible, though it was massively revised in the 1590’s.

W

Waldesnians A small Christian mendicant community traced to a 12c merchant, Valdes of Lyons. Protestant polemicists have argued that the Vaudois represented a sort of remnant of pure Pauline Christianity uninfected with Romanism. Though orthodox, they were nevertheless persecuted severely in the Inquisition. In the 1520’s and 30’s they adopted a Protestant confession and allied themselves with the Reformation. They apparently still exist in Rome.

Westminster Assembly and Standards—Confession and Catechisms (1643-9) A notable assembly of 121 theologians appointed during the English Civil War by the Long (Puritan) Parliament to make the Church of England “more agreeable to the Word of God”‘. The original goal was to revise the 39 Articles of Religion which was partially accomplished. When, however, the Solemn League and Covenant was concluded with Scots Presbyterians, the divines began a new confession altogether. The result was the Westminster Confession of Faith and Catechisms (1647) which admirably summarized the consensus among Reformed Protestants in the English speaking world for the next two centuries.

Whitehorse Tavern The pub, where, according to legend, several Protestant reformers met to discuss the new Protestant theology drifting into England from the Continent. Among those involved in these discussions were said to be William Tyndale.

Whitgift, John (c.1530-1604) Abp of Canterbury under Elizabeth. Himself a Calvinist, he nevertheless repressed puritans in attempting to maintain the Episcopal uniformity against Presbyterian critics.

Whittaker, William (1548-95) Puritan, Calvinist theologian who drafted the Lambeth Articles and edited the influential Nowell’s Catechism.

Wishart, George (c.1513-46) Scots Reformer and English translator of the First Helvetic Confession. Travelled Scotland advocating Reformation. In his last years he may have plotted against a Roman Cardinal. He was martyred at St. Andrews.

Wollebius, Johannes (1586-1629) German speaking Reformed theologian of Basel/ A student of Amandus Polanus, he served in the pastorate and later taught Old Testament. His Compendium theologiae Christianae is an outstanding representative of early 17th century Reformed theology.

Wolsey, Thomas (c.1474-1530) English Roman Catholic Cardinal, chaplain to Henry VIII, and Lord Chancellor. He opposed Henry’s divorce of Catherine of Arragon and fell from favor.

Worms, Diet of (1521) Where Luther defended his Protestantism before Charles V. Having been called upon to recant his Protestantism, he is said to have replied, “Here I stand. I can do no other. God help me”. Charles V issued an edict, after Luther had departed, formally condemning Luther’s doctrine.

Worms, Disputation of (1540-1) A colloquy attempting to reconcile Protestants with Rome. J. Eck spoke for Rome and Melanchthon for Protestants. The conference was abandoned midway in favor of the Diet of Ratisbon/Regensburg.

Würtemberg, Confession of (1552) A Protestant confession of faith in 35 articles compiled by the Lutheran theologian J. Brenz. It was probably used in the revision of the English Articles of Religion.

Wycliffe, John (c.1330-84) English theologian, philosopher, and Reformer. An Oxford scholar, he rejected Ockham’s nominalism in favor of Augustine. He attacked the wealth and moral corruption in the church, arguing that the state has the right to remove corrupt clerics. In his attempt to foster reform, he formulated an early version of the doctrine Sola Scriptura, and attacked the legitimacy of the Papacy, monastic orders and the doctrine of transubstantiation. His conducted a vigorous preaching ministry. His relations to the later Lollard movement are uncertain. His disciples made and English translation of the Bible from the Vulgate. His views influenced the Czech reformer Jan Hus. His views were condemned at the Council of (1415). Though not Protestant per se (on justification), his views are among those which later helped to fuel the Reformation. He died of natural causes.

X

Xavier, Francis (1506-52) Jesuit missionary to the East Indies and Japan. Trained as a theologian and canon lawyer in Paris, he became a colleague to Ignatius of Loyla and helped to found the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). Having learned Japanese, he established a community of 2000 within two years of his arrival, but was driven out by Buddhist monks. He died in the midst of attempting a mission to China and was buried at Goa. Though his use of civil authority and inquisitorial methods has been much criticized in modern times, Pius X declared him the patron saint of missions. He was canonized in 1622.

Z

Zanchi, Jerome (1516-90) Italian Reformed Protestant. Trained as a Thomist scholastic, he converted to Protestantism under the influence of Peter Martyr. Forced to flee to Geneva (1551) he studied under Calvin and taught for a decade in Strasbourg where he argued with the Gnesio-Lutheran J. Marbach over predestination, the Eucharist, and Christology. After a brief stint in the pastorate he was called to the University of Heidelberg. There he continued his work on predestination and defending the doctrine of the Trinity, and expositing Scripture. He is a significant figure in the development of Reformed orthodoxy.

Zwickau Prophets A group of Anabaptist radicals who claimed to have immediate divine revelation, taught an impending apocalyptic, and rejected infant baptism. In 1521 they relocated to Wittenberg and held discussions with Melanchthon, but were suppressed by Luther in 1522.

Zwingli, Huldrych (1484-1531) The father of the Swiss Reformation. Trained for the clergy, he came under the influence of Erasmian humanism. He applied his humanist skills to the study of Scripture and began to reach Protestant conclusions at about the same time as Luther. Whether he read and was influenced by Luther is a matter of debate. He worked with the local council in the Reformation of Zürich. Because of its relatively tolerant attitude, the city became a magnet for radicals. By 1525 he was defending infant baptism against anabaptist critics. Zwingli’s influence was great, but it was checked by Luther’s rejection of him. The chief reason for Luther’s rejection of Zwingli was that it appeared to Luther, even after they agreed on 14 articles at Marburg (1529), that Zwingli was a moralist, that the sacraments were about our work for Christ instead of Christ’s work for us. Zwingli consistently denied Christ’s bodily present in the Eucharist in favor of a memorialist view. Though some scholars hold that late in his life he moved toward a more highly developed view of spiritual presence, it seems rather that he simply strengthened his language about our psychological experience in the Supper. Zwingli’s theology received a mixed reception among later Protestants. Though certainly Protestant, he was less clear than Luther and Calvin about the exact nature of justification. He was a pioneer of covenant or federal theology among the Reformed. He died serving as chaplain to Swiss troops in the Second Battle of Kappel.

The Quadriga

Virtue Sense Scope
Literal Cognition
Fides Allegoricus Credenda
Spes Anagogicus Speranda
Caritas Tropologicus Agenda

Canticus Exegetae (Song of the Exegete)*

Litera gesta docet, (The letter teaches of deeds)
quid credas allegoria; (allegory of what is believed)
moralis quid agas; (morality of what is done)
quo tenda anagogia. (anagoge of things to come)

*Richard A. Muller, Dictionary of Latin and Greek Theological Terms (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1985), s.v., “Quadriga.”

The Chart

THE CHART

Period Time Dominant Question(s) Significance
Christian Antiquity Ascension to 1650
(Old World)
What has God said? Locus of authority is extrinsic
Modernity 1650-1914
(Old World)
1789-1968 (New World)
Has God said? Locus of authority is intrinsic (via rationalism, empiricism or romanticism)
Post/Late/Liquid Modernity 1914-Present (Old World)1968-Present (New World) Who cares, who is asking, and what do they want? Authority, what’s that?