HT515 History Of Reformed Worship

Course Description

A seminar in the history Christian worship from the the patristic period through the Westminster Assembly. Students will read and discuss primary and secondary sources.

Spring. 2 Credits.

Course Requirements:

(1) Attend all classes, complete all readings, participate in class discussion (50%), and present a research paper (35%). Write a liturgy (15%) with a brief explanation of your principle and its application.

(2) Research Paper. Limit 2500 words. Each student shall present and defend his or her completed paper to the seminar. The last several hours of class will be devoted to the reading and discussion of papers. After reading the paper to the seminar, the student shall revise and re-submit it to the instructor for a final mark. The final paper is due by 10:00 a.m. on the last day of classes.

Paper Requirements: Each student shall supply a copy of his or her paper to eachmember of the seminar 24 hours in advance of the meeting of class so that themembers of the seminar will have time to read it. An essay shall be marked down a full grade for every day it is late for either the seminar or the final deadline.

Liturgy requirements: Due at 10:00 AM on the last day of classes. Limit 1000 words.

Required Readings:

  1. Reader On Populi.
  2. Recovering the Reformed Confession chapters 7-8 (pp. 227-342)
  3. Strasbourg & Heidelberg Liturgies, on Populi.
  4. George Gillespie, A Dispute Against The English Popish Ceremonies. rev. ed. (Dallas: Naptali Press, 2013).

Schedule

Hour/Date Author/Topic Leader
1/Sep History of Worship rsc
2/Sep History of Worship
3/Sep History of Worship
4/Sep  History of Worship
5/Sep History of Worship
6/Sep History of Worship
7/Sep  History of Worship
8/Sep  History of Worship
9/Oct  Calvin – AGR
10/Oct  Calvin – AGR
11/Oct  Gillespie (Background)
12/Oct  Gillespie
13/Oct  Gillespie
14/Oct  Gillespie
15/Oct  Gillespie
16/Oct  Gillespie
17/Nov Gillespie
18/Nov Gillespie
19/Nov Gillespie
20/Nov Gillespie
21/Nov Gillespie
22-26/Nov Papers  Student

Recommended Reading

  1. Ames, William. A Fresh Suit Against Human Ceremonies in God’s Worship Or a Triplication Unto D. Burgesse His Rejoinder for D. Morton the First Part. Rotterdam[?]: 1633.
  2. Baird, Charles W. The Presbyterian Liturgies: Historical Sketches. Eugene, Ore: Wipf & Stock, repr. 2006.
  3. Benedict, Phillip. Christ’s Churches Purely Reformed: A Social History of Calvinism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.
  4. Crew, Phyllis Mack. Calvinist Preaching and Iconoclasm in the Netherlands 1544-1569. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  5. Davies, Horton. The Worship of the English Puritans. repr. ed. Morgan, PA: Soli Deo Gloria, 1997.
  6. Dugmore, C. W.  The Influence of the Synagogue Upon the Divine Office. London: Oxford University Press, 1944.
  7. Eire, Carlos M. N. War Against the Idols: the Reformation of Worship From Erasmus to Calvin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  8. David Lachman and Frank J. Smith, ed. Worship in the Presence of God. Greenville, SC: Greenville Seminary Press, 1992.
  9. Hart, D. G. Recovering Mother Kirk: the Case for Liturgy in the Reformed Tradition. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2003.
  10. McKee, Elsie Anne. “Reformed Worship in the Sixteenth Century,” in Christian Worship in Reformed Churches Past and Present, ed. Lukas Vischer (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2003)
  11. McNaugher, John. The Psalms in Worship. Pittsburgh: The United Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1907.
  12. Melton, Julius. Melton, Presbyterian Worship in America: Changing Patterns since 1787. Richmond, VA: John Knox Press, 1967.
  13. Muller, Richard A., and Rowland S. Ward. Scripture and Worship: Biblical Interpretation and the Directory for Public Worship (westminster Assembly and the Reformed Faith). P & R Publishing, 2007.
  14. Nevin, Robert. Instrumental Music in Christian Worship: A Review. 2nd ed. Londonderry: Bible and Colportage Society, 1873.
  15. Old, Hughes Oliphant. Worship. Guides to the Reformed Tradition, ed. John H. Leith and John W. Kuykendall. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1984.
  16. Old, Hughes Oliphant, The Patristic Roots of Reformed Worship. Zürich: Theologischer Verlag, 1975.
  17. Old, Hughes Oliphant. Worship That is Reformed According to Scripture (Atlanta: John Knox, 1984); Idem, Themes and Variations for a Christian Doxology. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1992.
  18. Old, Hughes Oliphant. The Reading and Preaching of the Scriptures in the Worship of the Christian Church. 7 vols. Grand Rapids, Mich: W.B. Eerdmans, 1998–
  19. Old, Hughes Oliphant. The Shaping of the Reformed Baptismal Rite in the Sixteenth Century. Grand Rapids, Mich: Eerdmans, 1992/li>
  20. Old, Hughes Oliphant. Holy Communion in the Piety of the Reformed Church. 2013: Tolle Lege Press, 2013.
  21. Price, John. Old Light on New Worship: Musical Instruments and the Worship of God, a Theological, Historical, and Psychological Study. Avinger, TX: Simpson Publishing Company, 2005.
  22. Primus, John H., The Vestments Controversy: An Historical Study of the Earliest Tensions Within the Church of England in the Reigns of Edward VI and Elizabeth. Kampen: J. H. Kok, 1960.
  23. Quasten, Johannes. Music and Worship in Pagan and Christian Antiquity, trans. Boniface Ramsey. Washington, DC: National Association of Pastoral Musicians, 1973.
  24. Sayers, Dorothy. “Lost Tools of Learning
  25. Thompson, Bard. ed., Liturgies of the Western Church (Philadelphia, 1961, repr. 1980)/li>
  26. Wegman, Herman A. J. Christian Worship in East and West: a Study Guide to Liturgical History. Translated by Gordon W. Lathrop. New York: Pueblo Publshing, 1993.
  27. White, James F. A Brief History of Christian Worship. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1993.

Assertion of Intellectual Property Rights

The instructor holds the copyright to all course lectures and original course materials. This copyright extends to student notes and summaries that substantially reflect the lectures or original course materials. Course lectures and materials are made available for the personal use of students only and may not be recorded or otherwise distributed (including the publication of student notes or summaries on social media) in any way for commercial or non-commercial purposes without the express written permission of the instructor.

CH527 Ecclesiastical Latin I

—Academic Goals:

  • By the end of the semester the student shall be able read Latin at an introductory level, i.e., shall recognize and analyze elementary vocabulary and forms and shall be able to recognize, analyze, and translate elementary Latin sentences.

—Pastoral Goals:

  • The student “exhibits growing integrity, teachability/humility, perseverance, self-discipline” (Source: WSC Student Learning Outcomes). Progress will be measured by weekly quizzes, a mid-term, and a final exam, as well as weekly reviews.
  • Students shall be prepared to translate, in class, sentences from the weekly assignment. Attendance to class is essential.

Latin I covers the first 14 chapters of the text.

Required Reading/Texts

 

  • John C. Collins, A Primer of Ecclesiastical Latin (Washington, DC: Catholic University Press, 1985).
  • Dorothy Sayers, “The Greatest Single Defect of My Own Latin Education, pt 1”; Part 2; Part 3; Part 4; Part 5
  • Course StructureEach week we will review the sentences from the previous week, preview the material to be learned in the upcoming week and take a quiz over this week’s material.Please come prepared on the first day of class to take an exam over the first two chapters of the Collins text. On week 2 we will review the Latin to English material from cha pters 1 and 2, preview ch. 4, and take a quiz over chapter 3.Before you can read Latin you must first memorize the vocabulary and forms. Then you must come to understand how those forms relate to each other in sentence form (grammar).

    Thus, in order to learn Latin you must first memorize. You cannot learn the relations of words and forms if they are unfamiliar. To memorize you need a large set of flash cards (or the Mac Genius program). You must write out the vocabulary and forms and quiz yourself repeatedly until you have mastered the assigned vocabulary and forms. Quiz yourself over the vocabulary until you can work through the assignment without error. Leave it and come back to it later. Isolate the vocabulary you’ve not yet memorized and focus on it. When you’ve mastered these words, go back and review all the vocabulary together. Leave it and come back to it tomorrow. When you pass the flash card quiz repeatedly without error you are ready for the vocabulary portion of the quiz.

    It will be helpful to write out the forms repeatedly on a black/white board (or on paper) until you can reproduce the forms without error and without consulting any helps. Leave it and come back later or even the next day and try to reproduce the forms. When you can reproduce the entire form the next day without error you are ready for that portion of the quiz.

    When translation sentences are assigned you must work on 5-6 sentences daily in order to complete the assignment successfully before the quiz. As a rule, if your translation makes no sense then you have most probably made a mistake. Do not assume that the text has erred. It hasn’t. When you can sight read all the assigned Latin to English sentences you are ready for the weekly quiz.

    Here’s the method for translation: Find the verb (translate it), find the subject of the verb (translate it), then find the qualifiers and translate them.

    If you follow this procedure each week, you should have learned the material well enough, with a little review, to perform well on the mid-term and final.

    Keep up. We move on each week and each chapter builds on the next and assumes that you have mastered the material from the previous chapter.

    Schedule

    The mid-term and final will be scheduled by the registrar. The weekly quizzes are given during the second hour of each class session.

    Recommended Texts

  • Biblia Sacra Vulgata
  • Leo F. Stelten, A Dictionary of Ecclesiastical Latin (Peabody, MA: Hendricksen, 1995).
  • Richard A. Muller, A Dictionary of Theological Latin and Greek (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1996)

Additional Bibliography

  • Dorothy Sayers, Lost Tools of Learning.
  • Brittain, F. Latin in Church. Cambrige: Cambridge University Press, 1934.
  • Harrington, K. P. Mediaeval Latin. Second Edition. ed. Joseph Pucci. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
  • Mantello, F. A. C. and A. G. Rigg, eds. Medieval Latin: An Introduction and Bibliographic Guide. Washington, DC: Catholic University Press, 1996.
  • Leal, Ioanes, ed. Novum Testamentum Domini Nostri Ieus Christi, Iuxta editionem Sixto-Clementinam anni 1592. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1960.
  • Weber, Robert. ed. Biblia Sacra Iuxta Vulgatam Versionem. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1969.
  • http://logeion.uchicago.edu

  • http://www.archives.nd.edu/cgi-bin/words.exe

  • Stelten, Leo F. Dictionary of Ecclesiastical Latin
  • Muller, Richard. F., A Dictionary of Latin and Greek Theological Terms
  • Harden, J. M., A Dictionary of the Vulgate New Testament
  • Bretzke, James T. Consecrated Phrases: A Latin Theological Dictionary
  • Lewis and Short, A Latin Dictonary
  • Smalley, Beryl, The Study of The Bible in the Middle Ages

Assertion of Intellectual Property Rights

The instructor holds the copyright to all course lectures and original course materials. This copyright extends to student notes and summaries that substantially reflect the lectures or original course materials. Course lectures and materials are made available for the personal use of students only and may not be recorded or otherwise distributed (including the publication of student notes or summaries on social media) in any way for commercial or non-commercial purposes without the express written permission of the instructor.

HT709 Thesis Proposal

(Revised April, 2013)

Course Description

Designed for those enrolled in the MA Historical Theology emphasis and may be attempted only after all the core courses for the degree have been completed. This course entails preparation for the completion of a thesis in the Spring Semester. The thesis proposal will be developed in consultation with faculty in the department of theological studies and will include a brief statement of topic, the state of the question, the proposed argument, research methods and a bibliography of primary and secondary sources.

Content and Organization

    1. Introduction
      1. Name
      2. Context, i.e. your personal interest in this project (why are you writing thisproject?)
    1. Brief Statement of the Topic
      1. What is the topic
      2. Why should anyone care about this topic
    1. State of the Question
      1. What is at issue?
      2. Who are the parties involved in the discussion?
      3. What is the state of the literature?
    1. Proposed Argument
      1. What is your tentative thesis/argument/hypothesis?
      2. How do you intend to make your case?
    1. Research Methods
      1. What historiographic method will you use?
      2. What sources will you use?
    1. Bibliography
      1. What are the most important primary sources?
      2. What are the most important secondary sources?
  1. Supervisor and Reader
    1. Who is your proposed supervisor?
    2. Who is your proposed reader?

Length

Not to exceed 3000 words, double-spaced.

Please read or re-read On the Writing of Essays.

Please read (or re-read) MA (HT) Thesis Guidelines

Due Date: Last day of the Winter Term Final Exam period, 10:00 AM.

Comments

Most of your effort should be directed toward explaining the topic you are researching, the state of the question and explaining how your research supplements the current body of knowledge. It is understood that your .thesis may change as your research progresses.

Guides:

Chicago Manual of Style 16th Edition

Kate L. Turabian, A Manual For Writers

Assertion of Intellectual Property Rights

The instructor holds the copyright to all course lectures and original course materials. This copyright extends to student notes and summaries that substantially reflect the lectures or original course materials. Course lectures and materials are made available for the personal use of students only and may not be recorded or otherwise distributed (including the publication of student notes or summaries on social media) in any way for commercial or non-commercial purposes without the express written permission of the instructor.

PT730 Studies In Distintives And Issues In The United Reformed Churches In North America (URCNA)

A directed study intended to supplement the existing preparation of URCNA students studying for the pastoral ministry and to focus their preparation for classical examinations.

Prerequisite: HT/ST615 Reformed Confessions.

1 or 2 Credits

The academic goal of the course is to expose the student to specific issues in systematic, historical, and pastoral theology related to the URCNAs.

The pastoral goal of the course is to give the student a structured, guided opportunity to excel in his classical exams.

The outcome of the course will be measured by classical examinations and, where possible, by feedback from the classes and examiners.

Requirements:

  1. Read and outline the Three Forms of Unity
  2. Memorize those questions and answers in the Heidelberg Catechism not memorized in HT/ST 615.
  3. Read and outline the Church Order of the URNCAs.
  4. Read Van Dellen and Monsma’s Commentary on the Church Order and submit a one 1-page reaction paper.
  5. Required attendance to and 1-page written reports on all URCNA lunchtime seminars.
  6. Mock oral exam

Assigned Readings

  1. Background to the Synod of Dort
  2. Preface to the Canons of Dort
  3. The Church Order of the Synod of Dort (1619)
  4. Dutch Reformed Church
  5. P. Y. DeJong, “The Rise of the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands” in P. Y. DeJong, ed. Crisis in the Reformed Churches: Essays in Commemoration of the Great Synod of Dort, 1618-1919 (Grand Rapids: Reformed Fellowship, 1968)
  6. Cornelis P. Venema, “Integration, Disintegration, and Reintegration: A Preliminary History of the United Reformed Churches in North America” in Always Reformed: Essays in Honor of W. Robert Godfrey
  7. URCNA Justification Committee Report
  8. URCNA Nine Points
  9. Commentary on the Nine Points
  10. Van Dellen and Monsma’s Commentary on the Church Order
  11. URCNA Form of Subscription
  12. URCNA Report on Deacons in the Churches
  13. URCNA-OPC Report
  14. URCNA Synod Escondido 2001 on Creation

Recommended Reading

  1. James D. Bratt, Dutch Calvinism in Modern America: A History of a Conservative Subculture
  2. ——Abraham Kuyper (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2014)
  3. Arie Baars, The Secession of 1834
  4. Hendrik Bouma, Secession, Doleantie, and Union 1834–1892
  5. Michael Brown, ed., Called to Serve: Essays for Elders and Deacons
  6. Abraham Kuyper, Centennial Reader
  7. Ron Gleason, Herman Bavinck: Pastor, Churchman, Statesman, and Theologian
  8. Peter S. Heslam, Creating a Christian Worldview: Abraham Kuyper’s Lectures on Calvinism
  9. CRC Position Paper on Women in Office
  10. Dorothy Sayers, Creed Or Chaos.

Assertion of Intellectual Property Rights

The instructor holds the copyright to all course lectures and original course materials. This copyright extends to student notes and summaries that substantially reflect the lectures or original course materials. Course lectures and materials are made available for the personal use of students only and may not be recorded or otherwise distributed (including the publication of student notes or summaries on social media) in any way for commercial or non-commercial purposes without the express written permission of the instructor.

HT/ST615 Reformed Confessions (Three Forms of Unity)

Course Description

An introduction to the background, doctrine, and use of the Reformed Confessions. Spring. 2 Credits.

The Student Learning Outcome for the Historical Theology Program: The student demonstrates understanding of the main eras of church history, the significant issues and leaders/theologians of each.

Course Requirements:

(1) Attend all classes, complete all readings and participate in class discussion (30%).

(2) One double or single spaced, typed, confession of faith or catechism of no more than 1000 words which addresses and includes the following topics:

  • Prolegomena (Revelation, Scripture)
  • Theology Proper (God’s being, attributes, the Trinity, creation and providence)
  • Anthropology (Creation, image of God and sin)
  • Christology (Jesus’ person, natures and work)
  • Soteriology (Sin, atonement, ordo salutis)
  • Ecclesiology (Offices, nature, structure, authority)
  • Sanctification and the sacraments (Baptism, Lord’s Supper; preaching and worship)
  • Eschatology (judgment, heaven and eternity)

This confession/catechism should be grounded in Scripture and informed by the catholic (universal) creeds of the Church and by the Reformed confession(s) to which you subscribe (e.g., The Three Forms or the The Westminster Standards). Your mark will be determined by whether and how well you address the topics listed. Given the word limit and the number of topics (which works out to about 100 words per topic) you must choose your words carefully. It would be wise to begin this assignment in the first week of classes.

NB: This exercise is intended to help you discover and appreciate the difficulty and art of writing a coherent, useful, confessional document. It is not intended to challenge or replace in your affections your present confessional allegiance.

Due the last day of the semester, 10:00 AM (35%)

(3) One double spaced, typed, essay of no more than 2500 words. A normal typescript page is approximately 300 words, therefore your essay should be about 8 pages. (35%)

Topics: You may write on any historical or theological topic addressed by one or more of the standards. Your essay must, however, interact substantially with a portion of at least one of the standards. Due the last day of the semester, 10:00 AM.

OR

Those who wish may substitute catechism memory for the assigned paper.

Heidelberg Catechism questions must be memorized from the Schaff edition, the 1959 CRCNA edition, or the 1978 RCUS edition, or the edition published by the Ontario/Oceanside/Pasadena URCs (in the bookstore), or the edition on this website.

The Heidelberg questions are:

1-9, 15-17, 19, 21, 26-28, 31, 32, 37, 45, 53, 54, 60, 61, 64, 65, 69, 72, 75, 80, 81, 86, 88, 96-98, 103, 114-116.

Those who choose this option will be tested at the end of the semester during finals week.

You must submit your reading percentage to the instructor by the end of reading week.

(4) Complete the Student Work Portfolio.

As a graduating senior, you must submit a Student Work Portfolio, which is a collection of your work over the course of your seminary education. This portfolio will be used by WSC for internal review of our educational effectiveness. It will not be distributed outside of the institution. Please follow the submission instructions carefully and ensure that your portfolio contains all of the required documents. Your portfolio should be submitted in digital form (preferably in PDF).

Cover Page

Submit your portfolio with a cover page that provides the following information:

  • Name
  • Program (MDiv, MATS, MAHT, MABS)
  • Start Date (year/month)
  • End Date (year/month)Required DocumentsPlease write a five-page reflection paper that addresses your impression of your experience here at WSC. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses in the curriculum, things you like and things you would like to see changed. Also comment on how well you believe that you have done in achieving educational improvement on the SLOs for your specific degree program. You do not have to cite any sources, as you are the primary source for this paper!Papers

    Please submit a clean copy (your name does not appear anywhere) of the following papers if assigned for the class listed below (note, the submission of these papers is the only exception to the rule against the dual-submission of papers for course credit)

MDiv

ST501 Christian Mind
NT602 Pauline Epistles
ST703 Doctrine of the Church
OT702 Prophetical Books (or OT701 Psalms and Wisdom)
One sermon manuscript (not an outline) from a Senior-level preaching practicum

MABS

ST501 Christian Mind
NT601 Gospels and Acts
OT702 Prophetical Books (or OT701 Psalms and Wisdom) OT601 Historical Books

MATS

ST501 Christian Mind
ST702 Christian Life
ST703 Doctrine of the Church

Required Readings

R. Scott Clark, Recovering the Reformed Confession.

D. G. Hart, The Lost Soul of American Protestantism (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002).

Samuel Miller, Doctrinal Integrity: On the Utility and Importance of Creeds and Confessions and Adherence to our Doctrinal Standards (Dallas: Presbyterian Heritage Press, [repr] 1989), 3–89.

R. Scott Clark, Why We Memorize the Catechism,” Presbyterian Banner (August, 2003).

R. Scott Clark, “Notes on Belgic Confession Article 15.”

R. Scott Clark, “Notes on a Possible Difficulty in Belgic Confession Article 14

R. Scott Clark, On the Revision of Belgic Confession Article 36

R. Scott Clark, Guilt, Grace, and Gratitude: Historical, Theological, Pastoral Commentary On The Heidelberg Catechism.

WSC Faculty, Our Testimony on Justification

The Three Forms of Unity (Heidelberg Catechismthe Belgic Confession and the Canons of Dort). For a print version see Schaff’s Creeds of Christendom. The 1976 CRC edition of the Heidelberg Catechism is not recommended.

P. Y. DeJong ed., Crisis in the Reformed Churches (Grand Rapids: Reformed Fellowship, 1968), 1,2,3,8.

Richard Muller, Confessing the Reformed Faith: Our Identity in Unity and Diversity,” New Horizons (1994).

Recommended Reading

Zacharias Ursinus, Commentary on the Heidelberg Catechism (Phillipsburg: P&R Publishing, [repr] 1985).

Lyle D. Bierma, Charles D. Gunnoe Jr., and Karin Y. Maag, An Introduction to the Heidelberg Catechism: Sources, History, and Theology. Texts and Studies in Reformation and Post-Reformation Thought (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2005).

Nicholaas Gootjes, The Belgic Confession: Its History and Sources (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2007).

A. A. Hodge, The Westminster Confession of Faith: A Commentary (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth).

David W. Hall, Practice of Confessional Subscription, ed. (Oak Ridge, TN: The Covenant Foundation, repr. 2001).

Joel R. Beeke and S. B. Ferguson, Reformed Confessions Harmonized (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1999).

Ligon Duncan, ed. The Westminster Confession into the 21st Century: Essays in Remembrance of the 350th Anniversary of the Publication of the Westminster Confession of Faith, 3 vols (Ross-Shire, Scotland: Mentor, 2003) .

W. R. Godfrey, “Tensions in International Calvinism” (PhD. Diss. Stanford University, 1974), ch.1.

S. W. Carruthers, The Westminster Confession of Faith: Being an account of the preparation and printing of its seven leading editions to which is appended a critical text of the confession(Greenville, [repr] 1995).

Johannes G. Vos, The Westminster Larger Catechism: A Commentary (Philipsburg: P&R Publishing, 2002).

C. R. Trueman and R. Scott Clark, ed., Protestant Scholasticism: Essays in Reassessment(Carlisle: Paternoster, 1999), Introduction, 1.2; 2.1; 2.4, 5.

Caspar Olevianus, A Firm Foundation, trans. L. D. Bierma (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1995).

——An Exposition of the Apostles’ Creed

R. Scott Clark, Caspar Olevian and the Substance of the Covenant of Grace: The Double Benefit of Christ (2005; Grand Rapids: Reformation Heritage Press, 2008).

Daniel R. Hyde, “The Holy Spirit in the Heidelberg Catechism,” Mid-America Journal of Theology 17 (2006): 211-37.

Daniel Hyde, With Heart and Mind: An Exposition of the Belgic Confession

James T. Dennison, ed. Reformed Confessions of the 16h and 17th Centuries in English Translation (Grand Rapids: Reformation Heritage Books, 2008).

Dorothy Sayers, “Lost Tools of Learning

—— Creed or Chaos

Other Resources

Assertion of Intellectual Property Rights

The instructor holds the copyright to all course lectures and original course materials. This copyright extends to student notes and summaries that substantially reflect the lectures or original course materials. Course lectures and materials are made available for the personal use of students only and may not be recorded or otherwise distributed (including the publication of student notes or summaries on social media) in any way for commercial or non-commercial purposes without the express written permission of the instructor.

CH602 Medieval And Reformation Church

Course Description

The first half of the course shall study the development of medieval theology, doctrinal controversies, the development of the church, monasticism, mysticism and the forerunners of the Reformation. The second half shall study the theology and practices of the Protestant Reformation. We will consider the social and intellectual contexts in which the Reformation theologies developed with special attention to Luther, Melanchthon, Zwingli, and Calvin. Some attention shall be given the English and later Reformations including the rise of Protestant scholasticism and confessionalism. Spring Semester. 4 credits.

Course Goals

—Academic Goal:

To enable the student to understand and discuss intelligently the institutional, theological, and social history of the church such that the student demonstrates understanding of dogmatic development in the history of the church from c. 500 AD -1619 AD.

—Pastoral Goal:

To help the student gain a critical appreciation for the development of Christian theology, piety, and practice from c.500 AD to 1619 AD.

Required Reading

NB: I do not discuss the background texts (Southern and Cameron) in class. The lectures assume that you have read them but you must read and master them in order to complete the course.

R. W. Southern, Western Society and the Church in the Middle Ages (New York, [repr.] 1978). This is a general background text not intended for class discussion.

Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae in either St Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, 5 vol. (Westminster, MD [repr.] 1981), or in A.M. Fairweather, ed. Aquinas on Nature and Grace (Philadelphia, 1959).

 

Summa TheologicaReference Nature and Gracepagination
1a. Q. 1 Art. 1.1–10 35–49
1a. Q.23 Art. 1–8 101–18
1a–2ae. QQ. 112–114 174–218

Euan Cameron, The European Reformation (Oxford, 1991). This is a general background text not intended for class discussion. Chapters 1–5, 14, 19, 21.

T. Lull ed. Martin Luther’s Basic Theological Writings:

Disputation Against Scholastic Theology
Heidelberg Disputation
Concerning the Letter and the Spirit
A Brief Instruction
Preface to the NT
Two Kinds of Righteousness
Bondage of the Will

R. Scott Clark, Iustitia Imputata Christi: Alien or Proper to Luther’s Doctrine of Justification?”Concordia Theological Quarterly 70 (2006): 269–310.

——, “The Benefits of Christ: Double Justification in Protestant Theology Before the Westminster Assembly,” Anthony T. Selvaggio, ed., The Faith Once Delivered: Celebrating the Legacy of Reformed Systematic Theology and the Westminster Assembly (Essays in Honor of Dr. Wayne Spear). (Phillipsburg: P&R Publishing, 2007), 107–34.

——, “Election and Predestination: Sovereign Expressions of God,” in David Hall and Peter Lillback, ed. A Handbook of Calvin’s Institutes (Phillipsburg: P&R Publishing).

——, “Calvin’s Principle of Worship,” in ed. David Hall, Tributes to John Calvin: A Celebration of his Quincentenary (Phillipsburg: P&R Publishing, 2010), 247–69.

John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, trans. F. L. Battles, ed. J. T. McNeill, 2 vols (Philadelphia, 1961), 1.1–10; 2.9–11; 3.1, 2, 11, 13, 17, 20, 24; 4.14–19.

Philip Schaff, ed. Creeds of Christendom (Grand Rapids, [repr.] 1983) or online:

Vol. 2: Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, Tridentine Profession of Faith;

Vol. 3: Augsburg Confession, Formula of Concord, Heidelberg Catechism, Belgic Confession, Canons of the Synod of Dort, Westminster Confession of Faith.

R. Scott Clark, Caspar Olevian and the Substance of the Covenant: The Double Benefit of Christ (2005; Grand Rapids: Reformation Heritage Books, 2008) [all]

Willem van Asselt, ed. Introduction to Reformed Scholasticism, Reformed Historical-Theological Studies (Grand Rapids: Reformation Heritage Books, 2011).

Recommended Reading

Engelbrecht, Edward A. Friends of the Law: Luther’s Use of the Law for the Christian Life. St Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 2011.

Carl R. Trueman and R. Scott Clark, ed. Protestant Scholasticism: Essays in Reassessment(Carlisle: Paternoster, 1999).

Part 1:
—Bagchi
—Steinmetz
Part 2:
—Muller
Part 3:
—Schaefer
—Godfrey
—Trueman

Dorothy Sayers, “Lost Tools of Learning”

G. R. Evans, ed. The Medieval Theologians (Oxford: Blackwells, 2001).

——A Brief History of Heresy (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003).

Marcia L. Colish, Medieval Foundations of the Western Intellectual Tradition 400-1400, Yale Intellectual History of the West (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1998).

Sabina Flanagan, Hildegard of Bingen, a Visionary Life, (Routledge, London, 1989).

Hildegard von Bingen,The letters of Hildegard of Bingen, trans. Joseph L. Baird, Radd K. Ehrman. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994).

Course Requirements:

  1. We live in a post-everything world of endless options. Nevertheless, in this course, your options are more limited. In order to pass the course you must demonstrate that you have learned and can adequately summarize and repeat the important material from the lectures and the readings.
  2. Mid-Term (covers the medieval church lectures and reading). 35%A failing grade on the mid-term means a failing grade for the course.
  3. Final exam (covers the Reformation church lectures and reading) 35 % A failing grade on the final exam means a failing grade for the course.
  4. Reading 30%
  5. Attendance. The WSC catalogue requires attendance to class. Class conflict petitions will not ordinarily be approved for this course.

Computers, Cheating, and Plagiarism

Anyone found to be using the computer inappropriately in class will face discipline.

Students who take class notes by computer tend to create a large, detailed transcript but they also tend not to analyze the information they are receiving. They hear the lecture but they do not listen to what is being said. In such a case, it is difficult to think about and interact with what is being said. As a consequence, students end the course with a large transcript of material with which they are not intimately familiar. This means that students have only reading week to master a large amount of relatively unfamiliar class material for the final exam.

In 2007, I encouraged students to take notes by hand. By doing so, those students had to listen closely to what was being said and they had to make a decision whether to write down anything and what to write. The student who takes notes by hand must synthesize and prioritize material. As a result, the student with handwritten notes has relatively less material to review before the exam. An informal survey of students with handwritten notes suggests that they felt better prepared for the final exam than they had with a large transcript.

Cheating and plagiarism are a serious infractions of the law of God and punishable by a measures determined by the faculty up to and including expulsion from the seminary. Cheating is presenting someone else’s work during an exam as your own. Plagiarism is presenting someone else’s work as your own in a paper. Please acknowledge all sources with appropriate footnotes. See the Student Handbook for a complete statement on plagiarism.

Questions in Class

I will set aside the last five minutes of class for questions. I generally encourage students to refrain from asking questions during the lecture unless it is a clarification that would be of use to the entire class. Students often report that if they wait a bit I will answer their questions in the lecture. I am not forbidding questions but I do ask students to ask themselves before the ask a question in class whether the question will benefit the entire class or whether the question would be better addressed privately after class. I always stay after class as long as necessary to answer questions and I am available in my office and by email and telephone.

Helps

Assertion of Intellectual Property Rights

The instructor holds the copyright to all course lectures and original course materials. This copyright extends to student notes and summaries that substantially reflect the lectures or original course materials. Course lectures and materials are made available for the personal use of students only and may not be recorded or otherwise distributed (including the publication of student notes or summaries on social media) in any way for commercial or non-commercial purposes without the express written permission of the instructor.

HT606 Medieval Seminar

Course Description

An introduction to, analysis and survey of the development of doctrine in the Western church in the the early, high, and late medieval periods. We consider several theologians in their context and pay close attention to some of the great texts from each period. Readings are drawn from Boethius, Anselm, Bernard, Abelard, Lombard, Joachim of Fiore, Aquinas, Ockham, and Bradwardine.  Spring. 2 Credits.

The Student Learning Outcome for the Historical Theology Program: The student demonstrates understanding of the main eras of church history, the significant issues and leaders/theologians of each.

NB: CH602 is a pre-requisite for this course unless waived by the instructor.

Class conflict petitions will not be approved for this course.

Course Requirements:

(1) Attend all classes, complete all readings, participate in classdiscussion, lead discussions, and present a research paper. Absence is permitted only with reasonable notice and explanation.

There are 26 class hours. Each student shall lead class sessions by introducing an assigned writer and text. The introduction should provide a discussion of the biography of the writer, a brief account of the setting of the writer and text, an introduction to the structure/organization of the text, and the a brief survey of the most important secondary literature. After the schedule is established it will be posted on Populi.

(2) Research Paper (50%). Limit 3000 words (approximately 9 pages). Each student shall present and defend his or her completed paper to the seminar. The last 4–5 hours of class will be devoted to the reading and discussion of papers. After reading the paper to the seminar, the student shall revise and re-submit it to the instructor for a final mark. The final paper is by 10:00 a.m. on the last day of classes.

Requirements: Each student shall supply a copy of his or her paper to eachmember of the seminar 24 hours in advance of the meeting of class so that themembers of the seminar will have time to read it.

Penalties: Students who do not meet the class time deadline shall be marked down 1/2 grade. An essay shall be marked down a full grade for every day it is late for either the seminar or the final deadline.

Required Readings:

Gottschalk and a Medieval Predestination Controversy: Texts Translated from the Latin, Medieval Philosophical Texts in Translation, trans. Victor Genke and Francis X. Gumerlock (Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press, 2010), 69–96, 107–55. ISBN: 0-87462-253-0

E. R. Fairweather, trans. and ed., A Scholastic Miscellany Anselm to Ockham (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1956), 100–183.

Peter Abelard, Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, The Fathers of the Church Mediaeval Continuation, trans. Steven R. Cartwright (Washington DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2011), 111–24; 131–38; 149–87; 194–205; 209–28; 249–64; 288–304.

Bernard of Clairvaux, On Grace and Free Choice, trans. Daniel O’ Donovan. Kalamazoo: Cistercian Publications 1988, 51–111.

Peter Lombard, The Sentences. trans Giulio Silano, 4 vol. (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 2007–10):

  • Book 1, Dist. 1–14)
  • Book 2, Dist. 1–12
  • Book 3, Dist. 16–22, 25–27
  • Book 4, Dist. 1–12, 14, 23, 26, 43

Aquinas, Summa Theologiae:

  • 1a, Questions 1–10, 14–25, 75–83, 95–97;
  • 1a2ae, Questions 1–3, 21, 49–53, 55–58, 61–63, 88, 106–114;
  • 2a2ae, Questions 1–7, 17–18, 23–25, 164–165;
  • 3a, Questions 1–5, 7–20, 24, 41–50, 60–63, 65–66, 68–69, 72–77, 79–80, 84, 86, 89.

Scotus, God and the Moral Law (populi)

Ockham, Predestination, God’s Foreknowledge, and Future Contingents (Populi)

Recommended Reading

Dorothy Sayers, “Lost Tools of Learning

G. R. Evans, ed. The Medieval Theologians (Oxford: Blackwells, 2001).

——A Brief History of Heresy (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003).

Marcia L. Colish, Medieval Foundations of the Western Intellectual Tradition 400-1400, Yale Intellectual History of the West (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1998).

Sabina Flanagan, Hildegard of Bingen, a Visionary Life, (Routledge, London, 1989).

Hildegard von Bingen,The letters of Hildegard of Bingen, trans. Joseph L. Baird, Radd K. Ehrman. (New York : Oxford University Press, 1994).

Assertion of Intellectual Property Rights

The instructor holds the copyright to all course lectures and original course materials. This copyright extends to student notes and summaries that substantially reflect the lectures or original course materials. Course lectures and materials are made available for the personal use of students only and may not be recorded or otherwise distributed (including the publication of student notes or summaries on social media) in any way for commercial or non-commercial purposes without the express written permission of the instructor.

HT611 Reformed Scholasticism

Course Description

A study of the theology and methods of Reformed orthodoxy from 1561–1725. Special attention will be given to soteriology. Fall. 2 Credits.

Course Goals

— Academic Goal:

  • To enable the student to understand and discuss intelligently the development of Reformed academic theology from 1560s through the 17th century.
  • The student “demonstrates understanding of the dogmatic (theological) development in the history of the church” (Source: WSC Student Learning Outcomes).— Pastoral Goal: To gain a sympathetically critical appreication of an important period in the Reformed tradition.
  • The student “exhibits growing integrity, teachability/humility, perseverance, self-discipline” (Source: WSC Student Learning Outcomes).
  • The student “gives reasons for convictions rather than merely asserting them.” (Source: WSC Student Learning Outcomes).
  • Requirements
  1. Attend all classes, complete all readings, prepare seminar discussion papers, lead and participate in class discussion (50%). After the initial orientation, each class session will be led by a student who shall have prepared a brief (limit 1,000 word) seminar paper analyzing an assigned reading or introducing an assigned author/reading. Every student shall produce an outline of the assigned reading for the class session. Each member must bring to class a hardcopy of the readings assigned for that session.The seminar leader will be responsible for leading discussion and seminar participants will be expected to interact with the seminar paper intelligently. Participation is essential in a seminar. If you cannot be present for a seminar, you must give the instructor reasonable notice and explanation.
  2. Essay (50%). Limit 2,500 words (approximately 10 pages). Each student shall present and defend his completed paper to the seminar. Each paper must be distributed to each member of the seminar at least 48 hours in advance of presentation to the seminar.
  3. Penalties: Students who do not meet the class time deadline shall be marked down 1/2 a grade. An essay shall be marked down a full grade for every day it is late for either the seminar or the final deadline.
  4. After reading the paper to the seminar, the student shall revise and re-submit it to the instructor for a final mark. The final draft is due at 10:00AM on the last day of class. Send the essay as a PDF to clark at wscal dot edu.

Required Reading (in the order assigned):

The readings are either published or provided online.

To be Done Before the First Class:

Muller Bibliography

R. Scott Clark, Christ and Covenant (Populi)

Carl R. Trueman and R. S. Clark, eds, Protestant Scholasticism: Essays in Reassessment (Carlisle: Paternoster, 1999).

Part 1:
—Bagchi
—Steinmetz
Part 2:
—Muller
Part 3:
—Schaefer
—Godfrey
—Trueman

Audio: Recovering the Past for Use in the Present

To be Read According to the Schedule Below

Theodore Beza, The Christian Faith, trans. J. Clark (East Sussex: Focus Christian Ministries Trust, 1992) (Populi)

Theodore Beza, Summa Totius Christianismi

Zacharias Ursinus, Ursinus, Commentary on the Heidelberg Catechism (Phillipsburg: P&R, 1985), 82–116, 205–58; 324–40.

Franciscus Junius, On True Theology. (all; omit preface)

Synopsis of A Purer Theology, disputations 17, 19, 21–22 (populi)

William Perkins, Golden Chain (chapters 19-30; pages 53–149)

Johannes Wollebius, Compendium of Christian Theology in J. W. Beardslee, ed. and trans., Reformed Dogmatics (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), 29–190 (bookstore)

Gisbertus Voetius, Select Theological Disputations in J. W. Beardslee, ed. and trans. Reformed Dogmatics (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), 262–334

John Owen, Vindiciae Evangelicae cap. 7 (populi)

Francis Turretin, Institutes of Elenctic Theology, trans. G. M. Giger, ed. J T Dennison, 3 vols (Phillipsburg: P&R, 1992–1997, vol. 2, topics 16–17, pages 633–723.

P. Van Mastricht, A Treatise on Regeneration (Soli Deo Gloria, repr. 2002), all.

J. H. Heidegger, The Concise Marrow of Christian Theology (Zurich, 1697) (populi).

Schedule

Hour/Date Author/Topic Leader
1/Sep Historiography rsc
2/Sep Beza Bio/Christian Faith student
3/Sep Beza, Summa Student
4/Sep Ursinus, Intro/Bio Student
5/Sep Ursinus, Commentary Student
6/Sep Junius/Intro Student
7/Sep Junius/On True Theology Student
8/Sep Perkins, Bio/Intro Student
9/Oct  Perkins/Golden Chain Student
10/Oct Wollebius, Bio/Intro Student
11/Oct Wollebius, Compendium Student
12/Oct Voetius, Bio/Intro Student
13/Oct Voetius, Select Student
14/Oct Owen, Bio/Intro Student
15/Oct Owen, Vindiciae Student
16/Oct Turretin, Bio/Intro Student
17/Nov Turretin, Institutes Student
18/Nov Van Mastricht, Bio/Intro Student
19/Nov Van Mastricht, Treatise Student
20/Nov Heidegger intro Student
21/Nov Heidegger/Marrow Student
22-26/Nov Papers Student
  1. Recommended Reading:
  2. Willem J. van Asselt, Introduction to Reformed Scholasticism. Reformed Historical-Theological Studies (Grand Rapids: Reformation Heritage Books, 2011).
  3. Heinrich Heppe, Reformed Dogmatics: Illustrated and Set Out From the Sources, ed. E. Bizer, trans. G. T. Thomson (Grand Rapids: Baker, repr. 1978). (Caution: Heppe re-arranged subjects according to his theological program and the translations are not always accurate).
  4. Richard Muller, Post-Reformation Reformed Dogmatics, 2nd edition, 4 vol. (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2002).
  5. Christ and the Decree: Christology and Predestination in Reformed Theology from Calvin to Perkins (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1986).
  6. After Calvin: Studies in the Development of a Theological TraditionOxford Studies in Historical Theology (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).
  7. Calvin and the Reformed Tradition.
  8. William van Asselt and Eef Dekker, eds, Reformation and Scholasticism: An Ecumenical Enterprise (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2001).
  9. Carl Trueman, The Claims of Truth: John Owen’s Trinitarian Theology (Carlisle, UK: Paternoster, 1998).
  10. —John Owen, Reformed Catholic, Renaissance Man.
  11. Sebastian Rehnman, Divine Discourse: The Theological Methodology of John Owen (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2002).
  12. Robert D. Preus, The Theology of Post-Reformation Lutheranism, 2 vols (Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1970-72 )
  13. W. R. Godfrey, “Tensions within International Calvinism: The Debate on the Atonement at the Synod of Dort, 1618–1619,” (Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University, 1974)
  14. Mark E. Dever, Richard Sibbes. Puritanism and Calvinism in Late Elizabethan and Early Stuart England (Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 2000).
  15. —[with Dr. Joel Beeke], “Ursinus, Oxford and the Westminster Divines,” The Westminster Confession into the 21st Century: Essays in Remembrance of the 350th Anniversary of the Publication of the Westminster Confession of Faith, 3 vols, ed. Ligon Duncan (Ross-Shire, Scotland: Mentor, 2003-), 2.1-32.
  16. —ed. and trans., Classic Covenant Theology
  17. —”Janus, the Well-Meant Offer of the Gospel and Westminster Theology,” in David VanDrunen, ed., The Pattern of Sound Words: A Festschrift for Robert B. Strimple(Phillipsburg: P&R Publishing, 2004).
  18. J. E. Platt, Reformed Thought and Protestant Scholasticism (Leiden: Brill, 1982).
  19. Jeffrey Mallinson, Faith, Reason, and Revelation in Theodore Beza 1519-1605 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).
  20. Willem J. van Asselt, “The Fundamental Meaning of Theology: Archetypal and Ectypal Theology in Seventeenth-Century Reformed Thought,” Westminster Theological Journal 64 (2002): 319–35.
  21. — The Federal Theology of Johannes Cocceius 1603–1669 (Leiden: Brill, 2001).
  22. — “The Theologian’s Tool Kit: Johannes Maccovius (1588–1644) and the Development of Reformed Theological Distinctions,” Westminster Theological Journal 68 (2006): 23–40.
  23. J. Mark Beach, “The Doctrine of the Pactum Salutis in the Covenant Theology of Herman Witsius,” Mid-America Journal of Theology 13 (2002): 101–142.
  24. Backus, Irena Dorota. Life Writing in Reformation Europe: Lives of Reformers by Friends, Disciples and Foes. Aldershot, Hampshire, England: Ashgate Pub, 2008.
  25. Backus, Irena Dorota. The Reformed Roots of the English New Testament: The Influence of Theodore Beza on the English New Testament. Pittsburgh, Pa: Pickwick Press, 1980.
  26. Raitt, Jill. Shapers of Religious Traditions in Germany, Switzerland, and Poland, 1560-1600. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981.
  27. — The Eucharistic Theology of Theodore Beza: Development of the Reformed Doctrine. Chambersburg, Pa: American Academy of Religion, 1972.
  28. Raitt, Jill. The Colloquy of Montbéliard: Religion and Politics in the Sixteenth Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Assertion of Intellectual Property Rights

The instructor holds the copyright to all course lectures and original course materials. This copyright extends to student notes and summaries that substantially reflect the lectures or original course materials. Course lectures and materials are made available for the personal use of students only and may not be recorded or otherwise distributed (including the publication of student notes or summaries on social media) in any way for commercial or non-commercial purposes without the express written permission of the instructor.

HT566 History Of Covenant Theology

Course Description

An introduction to Reformed federal or covenant theology. The course surveys the historical-theological development of covenant theology, its exegetical foundations, and systematic-theological consequences. Fall Semester. 2 Credits.

Course Goals

—Academic Goal:

To enable the student to understand and discuss intelligently the background, development, and nature of Reformed covenant theology.

—Pastoral Goal:

To help the student gain a critical appreciation for the development of Reformed covenant theology in the periods of early, high, and late Reformed orthodoxy.

Required Reading

Primary Texts

  1. Heinrich Bullinger, A Brief Exposition of the One and Eternal Testament or Covenant of God (1534) in C. S. McCoy and J. W. Baker, Fountainhead of Federalism (Louisville: WJKP, 1991), 99–138. (Populi)
  2. John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, trans. F. L. Battles, ed. J. T. McNeill, 2 vols (Philadelphia, 1961), 1.15 (all); 2.1 (all); 2.6–7 (all); 2.10–12 (all); 3.1–3 (all); 3.11, 14, 17, 4.14–15; 4.17.1–13, 4.17.31–33, 4.17.41–44; (Note: The Instiutes are cited as book.chapter.section. Where are there are only two numers they refer to book and chapter).
  3. Ursinus, Commentary on the Heidelberg Catechism, pp.2–39, 97–106, 324–440.
  4. ——, Large and Small Catechisms in Bierma et al eds. Introduction to the Heidelberg Catechism, pp. 137–223.
  5. Caspar Olevianus, An Exposition of the Apostles’ Creed, trans. Lyle Bierma, Classic Reformed Theology Vol. 2 (Grand Rapids: Reformation Heritage Books, 2010).
  6. Robert Rollock, Some Questions and Answers About God’s Covenant in Aaron C. Denlinger, “Robert Rollock’s Catechism on God’s Covenants,” Mid-America Journal of Theology 20 (2009): 105–129 (Populi)
  7. William Ames, Marrow of Theology, pp. 110–64, 202–13, 278–300.
  8. J. Wollebius, Compendium of Christian Theology in Reformed Dogmatics, trans. John W, Beards (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), pp. 54–58, 64–129.
  9. Edward Fisher, The Marrow of Modern Divinity (all)
  10. Johannes Cocceius, Summa de foedere [all] (to be provided)
  11. Samuel Rutherford, The Covenant of Life Opened, 1.1–11, 1.13–16, 2.5–12 (in the bookstore).
  12. Turretin, Institutes of the Elenctic Theology, 1.568–89; 2.169–269. (Populi)
  13. Herman Witsius, Economy of the Covenants 1.41–324.
  14. John Colquhoun, A Treatise on the Law and the Gospel (Morgan, PA: Soli Deo Gloria Publications, 1999), all.
  15. Charles Hodge, Systematic Theology, 2.117–129, 354–77. (Populi)
  16. Herman Bavinck, Reformed Dogmatics: 2: God and Creation, 563–80 and 3: Sin and Salvation in Christ, 193–232. (Populi)
  17. Karl Barth, Church Dogmatics, trans. G. W. Bromiley, 13 vols (Edinburgh: 1936–), 4:1:1–78. (Populi)

Required Secondary Reading

  1. R. Scott Clark, “Christ and Covenant: Federal Theology in Reformed in Orthodoxy,” in Herman Selderhuis, ed. Companion to Reformed Orthodoxy (Populi)
  2. ——, “Baptism and the Benefits of Christ: The Double Mode of Communion in the Covenant of Grace,” The Confessional Presbyterian Journal 2 (2006): 3–19.
  3. —, Caspar Olevian and the Substance of the Covenant: The Double Benefit of Christ (2005; Grand Rapids: Reformation Heritage Books, 2008), chapters, 5–7.
  4. Willem van Asselt, “The Doctrine of Abrogations in the Federal Theology of Johannes Cocceius,” Calvin Theological Journal 29 (1994): 101–16.
  5. J. Mark Beach, “The Doctrine of the Pactum Salutis in the Covenant Theology of Herman Witsius,” Mid-America Journal of Theology 13 (2002): 101–42.
  6. Richard A. Muller, The Covenant of Works and the Stability of Divine Law in Seventeenth-Century Reformed Orthodoxy: A Study in the Theology of Herman Witsius and Wilhelmus a Brakel,” Calvin Theological Journal 29 (1994): 75–101 (Populi)

Recommended Primary Sources

  1. William Ames, A Sketch of the Christian’s Catechism, trans. Todd M. Rester, Classic Reformed Theology Vol. 1 (Grand Rapids: Reformation Heritage Press, 2008).
  2. Robert Rollock, A Treatise of Our Effectual Calling in Select Works of Robert Rollock, 1.29–60, 160–177, 194–238.
  3. John Ball, A Treatise on the Covenant of Grace
  4. Nehemiah Coxe (Baptist), Covenant Theology from Adam to Christ (A Discourse of the Covenants that God Made with Men Before the Law. Wherein the Covenant of Circumcision is more largely handled and the invalidity of the plea for paedobaptism taken from thence discovered and John Owen, An Expositon of Hebrews 8:6–13 whrein the nature and differences between the Old and New covenants is covered), eds. Ronald D. Miller, James M. Renihan, and Francisco Orozco (Palmdale, CA: Reformed Baptist Academic Press, 2005).
  5. Thomas Boston, A View of the Covenant of Grace (reprint edition; Lewis, UK: Focus Christian Ministries Trust, 1990).

Recommended Secondary Reading

  1. Andrew A. Woolsey, Unity and Continuity in Covenantal Thought: A Study in the Reformed Tradition to the Westminster Assembly.
  2. Richard A. Muller, Calvin and the Reformed Tradition.
  3. Mark Beach, Christ and the Covenant: Francis Turretin’s Federal Theology as a Defense of the Doctrine of Grace.
  4. Brian Lee, Johannes Cocceius and the Exegetical Roots of Federal Theology.
  5. Aaron Denlinger, Omnes in Adam ex pacto Dei: Ambrogio Catarino’s Doctrine of Covenantal Solidarity and Its Influence on Post-Reformation Reformed Theologians (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2010).
  6. ——, “Calvin’s Understanding of Adam’s Relationship to Humankind: Recent Assertions of the Reformer’s ‘Federalism’ Evaluated,” Calvin Theological Journal 44 (2009): 226–250.
  7. Michael G. Brown, “Christ and the Condition: Samuel Petto c. 1624–1711″ on the Mosaic Covenant,” Mid-America Journal of Theology 20 (2009): 131–57.
  8. ——“Christ and the Condition: The Covenant Theology of Samuel Petto (c. 1624-1711)” M. A. Thesis Westminster Seminary California (2009).
  9. Brannan Ellis, “Christ our Righteousness: Petrus van Mastricht’s (1630-1706) High Orthodox Doctrine of Justification in its pre-Enlightenment Context”, M.A. Thesis Westminster Seminary California (2006).
  10. J. V. Fesko, “Calvin and Witsius on the Mosaic Covenant” in The Law is Not of Faith: Essays on Works and Grace in the Mosaic Covenant, ed. Bryan D. Estelle, J. V. Fesko, and David VanDrunen (Phillipsburg: P&R Publishing, 2009), 25–43
  11. D. G. Hart, “Princeton and the Law: Enlightened and Reformed,” in The Law is Not of Faith: Essays on Works and Grace in the Mosaic Covenant, ed. Bryan D. Estelle, J. V. Fesko, and David VanDrunen (Phillipsburg: P&R Publishing, 2009), 44–75.
  12. Brenton C. Ferry, “Works in the Mosaic Covenant: a Reformed Taxonomy,” in The Law is Not of Faith: Essays on Works and Grace in the Mosaic Covenant, ed. Bryan D. Estelle, J. V. Fesko, and David VanDrunen (Phillipsburg: P&R Publishing, 2009), 76–108.
  13. J. Mark Beach, “Calvin and the Dual Aspect of Covenant Membership: Galatians 3:15–22—and Other Key Texts,” Mid-America Journal of Theology 20 (2009): 49–73.
  14. ——, “The Promise of the Covenant and the Enigma of Unbelief: Reflections on Covenant Promise with a Selection from Samuel Volbeda’s “Catechetics,” Offering a Critique of William Heyns’ Doctrine of the Covenant and the Apostasy of Covenant Youth, in Mid-America Journal of Theology 15 (2004): 125–63.
  15. Richard A. Muller, “Divine Covenants Absolute and Condiitonal: John Cameron and the Early Orthodox Development of Reformed Covenant Theology,” Mid-America Journal of Theology 17 (2006): 11–56.
  16. G. Vos, “The Doctrine of the Covenant in Reformed Theology,” in Redemptive History and Biblical Interpretation, ed. R. B. Gaffin, Jr. (Phillipsburg: P&R Publishing, 1975), 234–67.
  17. R. Scott Clark and Joel R. Beeke, “Ursinus, Oxford, and the Westminster Divines,” inThe Westminster Confession into the 21st Century: Essays in Remembrance of the 350th Anniversary of the Publication of the Westminster Confession of Faith, 3 vols (Ross-Shire, UK: Mentor, 2003), 2.1–32.
  18. Rowland Ward, God and Adam: Reformed Theology and the Creation Covenant(Wantirna, Australia: New Melbourne Press, 2003).
  19. John von Rohr, The Covenant of Grace in Puritan Thought.
  20. John Girardeau, The Federal Theology: Its Import and Regulative Influence (reprint, Greenville, SC: Reformed Academic Press, 1994)
  21. Jeong Koo Jeon, Covenant Theology and Justification By Faith.
  22. ——Calvin and the Federal Vision
  23. ——Covenant Theology: John Murray’s and Meredith G. Kline’s Response to the Historical Development of Federal Theology in Reformed Thought
  24. Guy Prentiss Waters, “The Theology of Norman Shepherd: A Study in Development, 1963–2006,” in The Hope Fulfilled: Essays in Honor of O. Palmer Robertson, ed. Robert L. Penny (Phillipsburg: P&R Publishing, 2008), 206–31.
  25. Anthony Selvaggio, “Unity or Disunity? Covenant Theology from Calvin to Westminster,” in Anthony T. Selvaggio, ed., The Faith Once Delivered: Celebrating the Legacy of Reformed Systematic Theology and the Westminster Assembly (Essays in Honor of Dr. Wayne Spear). (Phillipsburg: P&R Publishing, 2007), 217–45.
  26. P. Y. DeJong, The Covenant Ida in New England Theology (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1945).
  27. Willem J. Van Asselt, The Federal Theology of Johannes Cocceius (1603-1669), trans. Raymond J. Blacketer, Studies in the History of Christian Thought (Leiden: Brill, 2001).
  28. Philip G. Ryken, Thomas Boston as Preacher of the Fourfold State (Carlisle, UK: Rutherford House, 1999).
  29. Carol A. Williams, “The Decree of Redemption is in Effect a Covenant: David Dickson and the Covenant of Redemption” (PhD Dissertation, Calvin Theological Seminary, 2005).

Course Structure

Each class session will involve lecture and discussion.

Course Requirements:

1. Complete the assigned reading 40%

2. Attend class 10%

3. Research paper (limit 2500 words) 50%. Due by 10:00AM on the last Friday at the semester. Email your paper as a Word (or Pages) document to rsclark at wscal dot edu Name the file: lastnamefirstname.doc (or .pages). It is not possible to submit a paper without a thesis sentence and pass this course.

Standards and Manner:

Read On the Writing of Essays, even if you’ve read it before. Your mark for the paper will be reduced by one full letter for each day an assignment is late. A paper submitted after 10 AM on the last day of classes is late. No exceptions. No excuses.

Start your paper now. If you wait until late in the semester your hard drive will crash, your cat will get leukemia, or something equally dreadful will happen and you will come to me to ask for an extension and I will say “NO!” Be a Calvinist. Plan for trouble and hardship in this life.

Comparative papers are more difficult than papers with one subject because a comparative paper requires investigation of two bodies of secondary literature (assuming they both exist). Thus a paper comparing Luther and Calvin will be about twice as difficult as a paper focusing only on Calvin or Luther. Therefore, they are not encouraged.

Papers must be grounded in primary sources. This means that there must be primary sources for any topic you wish to cover. If there are not primary sources at hand to support your research you should find another topic. Do not count on inter-library loan. Those resources may not arrive in time for you to meet the deadline.

Electronic sources found on sites such as Google Books are appropriate insofar as the original text is a published primary source or secondary text. Other appropriate electronic sources are the DLCP database (available through the WSC library page) or EEBO or the Post-Reformation Digital Library other such reputable primary source sites.

Cheating and Plagiarism

Don’t even think about it. Cheating and plagiarism are a serious infractions of the law of God and punishable by a measures determined by the faculty up to and including expulsion from the seminary. Cheating is presenting someone else’s work during an exam as your own. Plagiarism is presenting someone else’s work as your own in a paper. Please acknowledge all sources with appropriate footnotes. See the Student Handbook for a complete statement on plagiarism.

Assertion of Intellectual Property Rights

The instructor holds the copyright to all course lectures and original course materials. This copyright extends to student notes and summaries that substantially reflect the lectures or original course materials. Course lectures and materials are made available for the personal use of students only and may not be recorded or otherwise distributed (including the publication of student notes or summaries on social media) in any way for commercial or non-commercial purposes without the express written permission of the instructor.